Arrowhead in the leg of a monk that died as a martyr in Square 35, locus 17


Skeleton found in the northeast corner of square 23.


Plan of ruins and burials in Area 11.


Burial 1134010 of an adult female (age 17 to 35 years old) who was found buried 1.39 meters below the surface in Square 34. A bronze ear ring can be seen by her left ear. The position of her legs suggests extreme torture.


Burial in Area 11 with a copper ear ring.

Lari and Fletcher excavate a shallow burial in Area 11; dozens of burials were made in the sediments above the layer with the martyr burials.

Burial 1135017 of an adult male who was a martyr. He was tortured by having his hand cut off at the wrist. His left arm was fractured by a blow. Both of his legs were torn from his hip socket. He body was crushed beneath a heavy wooden door (the hardware was preserved directly above his skeleton). Burial 1135017 was wounded with 3 iron arrowheads that were embedded in the knee and ankle of his right leg.



Burial 1135017 has a open mouth which is typical of the martyr burials, but not typical of 99% of burials at Tuneinir. The open mouth may have related to torture that dislocated and damaged his jaw. The open mouth and unremoved arrowheads may reflect the rapid burial of the body as the mudbrick walls of the monastic cells collapsed on the body. There is no evidence for scavenger damage to the martyr burials.



Burial 1144026 of an adult male who was a martyr. This burial was discovered in 1999 was the first martyr burial discovered in Area 11.



Burial 1153018 of an adult male who was a martyr. His skull shows several compression fractures that were healed (over the right eye, for example) and an unhealed compression fracture over his left eye orbit that was probably the cause of his death. Associated with his burial were two worn Umayyad copper fals which help date the burial after the Umayyad Period (to Abbasid or Seljuk) but before the plentiful copper coinage of the Ayyubid Period.



Worn Byzantine "M" follis coin found associated with one of the martyr burials.






Cyst burial made in the ruins of the monastic cells.





Photographic credit: Professor David Hanlon, SLCC-MC
Webpage created 26 February 2005.
Updated 4 November 2011