The khan measures 23.8 x 24.2 meters and was modified by the addition of a mosque, enclosed corral, and cluster of shops. The only entrance to the khan is situated along the north wall of the structure. Collapsed arches and internal subdivisions are visible in the rooms that opened into the courtyard. A series of semi-circular buttresses are distributed along the exterior wall of the khan; they supported the wall and mimicked the towers common to Ayyubid citadels.


The original plan of the south khan included the central courtyard with interior rooms constructed in a fashion to give mirror image symmetry down the north-south axis of the khan. The symmetry was lost during the Ayyubid Period when the west half of the northeast room was transformed into a weli. The addition of the mosque and shops, attached to the north half of the khan, also disrupted the building's symmetry. The Arabic inscriptions from Area 4 and the Syriac inscriptions from Areas 3, 9, and 10 underline the fact that Tuneinir was a multi-ethnic, multi-religious community during the Abbasid and Ayyubid Periods.


The southeast corner of the Area 4 khan was damaged during the Medieval Period. My first impression is that the khan was attacked and destroyed during the 13th century and the weak spot was the southeast corner.



Stone threshold to the Area 4 khan with a peg hole to secure the door.


Area 4 included a group of small shops attached to the northwest side of the khan. One shop included two small furn (Arabic, furnace) or tannur (Arabic, bread oven).



Michael and Neathery Fuller measure and draw the Area 4 khan.



1927 aerial photograph of Area 4 khan taken by Poidebard.



35 mm camera on a kite line over Area 4.



Kite photograph of Area 4 during excavation.


Excavation units and longtitude/latitude from Area 4 calculated by a handheld GPS device.
Photographic Credit: Professor David Hanlon, SLCC-MC
Webpage updated 2 March 2005
Created 25 February 2005.
Migrated 1 April 2008
Updated 28 December 2008