Hayden Site (23SL36)

The Hayden site was recorded by Leonard Blake during the 1940s and included in the Bonhomme National Register Historic District. The site is on private land and it is not open to the public. The Hayden site was severely damaged by looters in the 1990s ahead of the rescue excavation by the University of Missouri - St. Louis.


Rescue archaeological work was conducted at the Hayden Site by Joe Harl on behalf of the Archaeological Services at the University of Missouri - St. Louis during 1993. A three quarter grooved axe was recovered by the professional archaeologists.



The three quarter grooved axe measures 19.6 cm in length, 9.1 cm in width and 6.0 cm thick. It weighs 1910 grams. The axe was manufactured from diorite (an igneous rock) and is typical of the Late Archaic Period in Missouri. UMSL inventory number 93-293; drawing from Harl (1995: Figure 29a). It was discovered at the base of the plowzone in piece plot location 197.



Several radiocarbon dates were made on charcoal samples from the site; they cluster into two discrete groups. The Late Archaic dates include 2130 BC +/- 70, 2060 BC +/- 60, 2000 BC +/- 70, and 1980 BC +/- 60. A bannerstone, decorated with incised lines, was discovered during the rescue excavation of the Hayden site; it was manufactured from steatite and measures 57.1 mm in length, 52.0 mm in width, and 19.3 mm in maximum thickness. The diameter of the drilled hole is 11.8 mm on one end and 12.2 mm on the other. The bannerstone is typical of the Late Archaic Period in Missouri. A line drawing of the bannerstone was published by Joe Harl (1995: Figure 29b).



Resharpened Etley point (that has lost its barbs) recovered during the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 127.8 mm, width = 29.4 mm, thickness = 10.8 mm and weight = 46.1 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-802. Joe Harl interprets the Hayden site as a production center for long bladed points that were traded to other regions during the Late Archaic Period. Chert was not traded during the Late Woodland Period occupation..



Etley point from feature 118 recovered during the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 91.9 mm, width = 34.5 mm, thickness = 9.5 mm and weight = 35.7 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-2314a.



Etley point (piece plot number 168) recovered during the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 105.1 mm, width = 30.3 mm, thickness = 11.4 mm and weight = 43.3 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-213.



Wadlow point recovered during the the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Joe Harl interprets Wadlow points as preforms for Etley and Stone County points. Length = 119.2 mm, width = 44.2 mm, thickness = 10.8 mm and weight = 70.4 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-782.



Wadlow point (piece plot artifact 578) recovered during the the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Joe Harl interprets Wadlow points as preforms for Etley and Stone County points.Length = 123.1 mm, width = 36.2 mm, thickness = 9.9 mm and weight = 57.5 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-646.



Drill/awl recovered during the the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 113.6 mm, width = 42. mm, thickness = 13.5 mm and weight = 45.8 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-3016.



Osceola point from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 96.7 mm, width = 35.2 mm, thickness = 9.9 mm and weight = 39.1 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-811. A line drawing of this artifact was published by Harl (1995: Figure 20G).



Osceola point resharpened into a drill/awl; from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 72.9 mm, width = 32.4 mm, thickness = 9.5 mm, and weight = 17.4 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-799B).



Osceola point from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 98.5 mm, width = 34.1 mm, thickness = 9.8 mm, and weight = 35.6 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-717; a line drawing of this artifact was published in Harl (1995:Figure 20F) .



Osceola point from the rescue excavation at the Hayden site. Length = 82.1 mm, width = 31.5 mm, thickness = 10.2 and weight = 21.7 grams. The artifact appears to be manufactured out of "High Ridge" chert - the lower portion of the Mississippian formation. This chert found throughout western St. Louis, eastern Franklin, and western St. Charles Counties, as well as in northwestern Jefferson County. UMSL inventory number 93-966.



Osceola point from the rescue excavation at the Hayden site. Length = 93.7 mm, width = 30.8 mm, thickness = 9.0 and weight = 33.7 grams. The artifact appears to be manufactured out of "High Ridge" chert. UMSL inventory number 93-811.



Corner notched point from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 60.6 mm, width = 37.5 mm, thickness = 8.3 mm and weight = 14.5 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-810. A line drawing of this point was published by Harl (1995: Figure 20B).



Stone Square stemmed point from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site; manufactured from "High Ridge" chert. Length = 103.4 mm, width = 36.9 mm, thickness = 29.8 mm and weight = 43.1 gram. UMSL inventory number 93-800.



Etley point from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 102.3 mm, width = 35.8 mm, thickness = 10.0 mm and weight = 39.9 grams. The artifact appears to be manufactured out of Burlington chert. UMSL inventory number 93-800.



Etley point from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 101.4 mm, width = 38.4 mm, thickness = 10.0 mm and weight = 35.6 grams UMSL inventory number 93-365.



Stone Square stemmed point from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site; not from local chert. Length = 114.4 mm, width = 33.0 mm, thickness = 9.3 mm and weight = 37.8 grams UMSL inventory number 95-965.



Square stemmed point manufactured from Cobden chert (local to Southern Illinois) recovered from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site; not from local chert. Length = 84.1 mm, width = 39.8 mm, thickness = 7.5 mm and weight = 28.3 grams UMSL inventory number 93-314; piece plot number 262. Illustrated by Harl (1995: Figure 25c).



Etley point from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 146.0 mm, width = 33.8 mm, thickness = 9.1 mm and weight = 52.6 grams. The artifact appears to be manufactured out of "High Ridge" chert - the lower portion of the Burlington formation in Jefferson County, MO. UMSL inventory number 93-3184.



Stemmed point from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 169.5 mm, width = 47.8 mm, thickness = 43.4 mm and weight = 249.6 grams. The artifact is an eccentric with the large knob of chert on one face, Maybe, the point was manufactured to be attached by the knob to some kind of wood or skin display. UMSL inventory number 93-158.



Stemmed point with excurvate blade from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 97.7 mm, width = 27.6 mm, thickness = 12.5 mm and weight = 38.9 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-800.



Stemmed point with burinated blade from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Length = 97.9 mm, width = 27.6 mm, thickness = 9.1 mm and weight = 38.7 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-800.



Biface preform from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site; piece plot number 544. Length = 113.5 mm, width = 43.3 mm, thickness = 15.3 mm and weight = 79.0 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-681.



Biface preform from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site; piece plot number 570. Length = 118.5 mm, width = 38.5 mm, thickness = 12.2 mm and weight = 55.9 grams. UMSL inventory number 93-713.



Two groundstone artifacts from the rescue excavation at the Hayden site. Harl (1995:86) described these as undrilled gorgets while Richard Martens identifies them as thin celts. Photograph provided by Richard Martens. Approximate measurements from the line drawings (Harl 1995:Figure 29:d and e) indicate that the left specimen measures 50 mm in length and 59 mm in width. The approximate measurements for the right specimen are 113 mm and 62 mm in width.



Four Stone Square stemmed points from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Drawing from Harl (1995: Figure 19).



Three Osceola points and two Burkett points from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Drawing from Harl (1995: Figure 20e-j).



Five Etley points from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Drawing from Harl (1995: Figure 18).



Two corner notched points and two Afton points from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Drawing from Harl (1995: Figure 20a-d).



Three stone tools made of out Bailey chert (source in southern Illinois) from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Drawing from Harl (1995: Figure 26).



Three Late Archaic period points made out of Cobden chert (from Illinois) from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Drawing from Harl (1995: Figure 25).



Two thick Type 1 bifaces/preforms from the rescue excavation at the Hayden Site. Drawing from Harl (1995: Figure 28).


Analysis of botanical remains by Professor Patti Wright (UMSL) found 10 taxi of wood samples in the Late Archaic (Titterington Phase) deposits. Quercus (oak) was the dominant taxa with other varieties including Carya (hickory), Celtis/Ulmus (hackberry/elm), Fraxinus (ash), Gleditsia/Gymnocladus (honey locust/Kentucky coffee tree), Juglans (walnut) and Platanus occidentalis (sycamore). Examples of carbonized nut shells included Carya (hickory), Juglans (walnut), Quercus (oak) Juglans nigra (black walnut) and Corylus americana (hazelnut). Wild, starchy seeds include the remains of 418 Chenopodium (goosefoot) and a single fragment of Polygonum (knotweed). A total of 103 specimens of Iva annua (Marshelder) were recovered in the Late Archaic features including 99 specimens from a single feature. A total of 10 kernels of Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) were found in the Late Archaic features plus remains of four Asimina trilobia (pawpaw), 15 Diospyros virginiana (persimmon), 26 Vitis (grape), and three Rhus (sumac). All of these would have been utilized as food. Charred fragment of bone were recovered from several features, but they were too fragmentary for positive identification. The rare intact tooth specimens always belong to Odocoileus virginianus (white tailed deer).

 

The Hayden site was also occupied during the early Late Woodland Period based upon three radiocarbon dates of AD 480 +/- 70, AD 630 +/- 50, and AD 640 +/- 60.


Harl, Joseph L. and Dennis Naglich
1993 Cultural Resource Survey of the Proposed Hayden Housing Tract, Chesterfield, St. Louis County, Missouri. UMSL Archaeological Research Report 175.

Harl, Joseph L.
1995 Data Recovery Investigations at the Hayden Site (23SL36) and the Rabanus Site (23SL859), Chesterfield, St. Louis County, Missouri: New Insights into the Titterington/Sedalia Phase in East-Central, Missouri. UMSL Archaeological Research Report 182.


Thank you to Neathery Fuller (who made many of the measurements at UMSL), Joe Harl, Mark Leach, Professor Patti Wright (UMSL), Scott McDowell (UMSL lab assisant), Justin Adair (UMSL student researching the Hayden site lithics) and Monte Abbot for their help in the research to prepare this webpage. Special thanks to Ettus Hiatt for assistance in editing the website text..
Webpage constructed 13 November 2012
Webpage updated 22 December 2012