Hoecake Mound 23MI8

This site was investigated by archaeologists from the University of Missouri at Columbia in response to the widespread loss of sites by landleveling in Southeast Missouri during 1963 and 1967.



Pre-excavation view of Story mound at the Hoecake Site.



Pre-excavation view of the Story mound at the Hoecake Site.



Visitors to the site.



Tomb B under story mound at the Hoecake Site



Tombs A, B, and C under story mound at the Hoecake Site. Tomb B had six extended burials while tomb A had 4 extended burials. From O'Briein and Wood (1998:Figure 5.37) based upon Marshall (1988).



Schematic of tomb A construction under Story mound at the Hoecake Site. From O'Briein and Wood (1998:Figure 5.37) based upon Marshall (1988).



Plan of Mississippian houses at the Hoecake Site based upon Chapman (1980:Figure 4.31).



Projectile points from the Hoecake site. From Williams (1974:Figure 24B).


Chapman (1980:133, 135) discussed the Hoecake site and references J. R. Williams (1968 and 1974). Radiocarbon dates reported from the Hoecake site include AD 640 +/- 130, and AD 1185 +/- 90 (Chapman 1980:271-272). O'Brien and Wood (1996:281-283) discuss the Hoecake Site and note a radiocarbon from tomb C of AD 663 +/- 184 as reported by Marshall (1988). Houck (1908:64) described the site as 54 mounds including at least one that is 25 ft high with an 80 foot base. Almost all of the mounds were leveled before the 1960s. Richard Marshall excavated the surviving two mounds at the site.
Williams (1974:81) had plant samples analyzed by Dr. Hugh Cutler of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. "A small amount of maize was identified as having 10 and 12 rows. Persimmons, acorns, pecans, wild grapes and unidentifiable tubers wre also recovered."

Animal remains were identified by Carl Falk as including opposum, swamp rabbit, cottontail rabbit, fox squirrel, beaver, marsh rice rate, meadow mouse, muskrat, dog, dog/coyote, raccon, mink, stiped skunk, river otter, white-tailed deer, and elk. Bird remains include turkey, canadian goose, mallard duck, teal, and hooded maerganser. Other remains include terrapin, common snappin turtle, box turtle, channel catfish, bullfrog, and various unidentified fish remains.


Chapman, Carl H.
1980 The Archaeology of Missouri, II. University of Missouri Press, Columbia.

Houck, Lewis
1908 A History of Missouri, Vol. 1. Chicago.

Marshall, Richard
1988 The burial patterns in Story Mound 1: Hoecake site, southeast Missouri. In Middle Woodland settlement and ceremonialism in the mid-south and lower Mississippi Valley. ed. R. C. Mainfort, Jr. Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Archaeological Report No. 22

O'Brien, Michael J. and W. Raymond Wood
1998 The Prehistory of Missouri. University of Missouri Press, Columbia.

Williams, J. Raymond
1968 Southeast Missouri Land Leveling Salvage Archaeology 1967. Midwest Research Center in Lincoln, Nebraska.
1974 The Baytown Phases Phases in the Cairo Lowland of Southeast Missouri. Missouri Archaeologist 36.


Special thanks to Candace Sall, Curation Specialist, American Archaeology Division for her assistance in researching the curated archaeological collections of the University of Missouri - Columbia. The images reproduced at this website were graciously provided by the American Archaeology Division (AAD) Museum and Missouri Archaeological Society. A warm thanks to Neathery Batsell Fuller for her advice on the content of the webpage.


Webpage constructed 15 March 2006

Webpage updated 4 October 2016