Fieldwork in 1978 began on May 28 and ended on June 27. Three excavation areas were opened. The Central Test Pit was excavated to sterile gezira sand. The Temple Trench was placed to re-examine the ruins that Petrie first exposed in the first decade of the 20th century. A small excavation area north of the Temple Trench was designated as the Temple Annex.


Contour map showing location of three excavation area: Central Test Pit, Temple Trench, and Annex.





Stratigraphy in the upper meters of the Central Test Pit is clearly visible. Al Hoerth makes notes on the corner of a mudbrick building.





The central test pit was excavated with a ramp along one wall to allow baskets of dirt to be removed. This caused the bottom of the pit to gradually decrease as the pit deepened.




Profile of the central test pit from Level 1 (Saite) to Level 11 (Second Intermediate).




Serrated flint blade found amongst carbonized grains of barley in the deepest layer, Level 11. The blade measures 5.9 x 2.5 x 0.6 cm. It is a banded white and tan chert with considerable silica sheen along the serrated, cutting edge.




Rustic eye figurine made by cutting and drill a bodysherd. Found amongst carbonized grains of barley and a serrated flint blade in the deepest layer, Level 11. The figurine measures 3.5 x 1.7 x 0.7 cm. The sherd paste is a light brown (7.5YR6/4).




Broken limestone gravestone reused as a door socket




Infrared image of the broken limestone gravestone.








The great majority of pottery from the Central Test Pit was undecorated. Here are a few sherds with paint decoration as well as sherds with an applied slip. The decorated sherd in the upper right hand corner has a lotus design painted in both red (10R4/3) and very dark gray paint (2.5YRN3/0) on a red (2.5YR5/6) paste. The catalog number for the sherd in the upper left is 7E.




Two bodysherds with faint ink hieroglyphs from within the mudbrick structure that Petrie had excavated and identified as a "Temple." The architecture and artifacts inside the mudbrick walled building seemed more appropriate for a storehouse than a Temple.




Brick for brick drawing of the mudbrick foundations uncovered in the western half of the site. This building was designated as a "Temple" by Petrie. His plan of the building did not show the small abuting rooms built against the heavier walls.




Three grounstone artifacts from the Central Test pit.
Left - domed weight manufactured from white (7.5YRN8/0) micritic limestone measuring 4.6 x 4.3 x 4.3 cm.
Middle - slingstone manufactured from fine grained dark reddish gray (10R3/1) sandstone and measuring 4.0 x 4.0 x 3.9 cm.
Right - slingstone manufactured from a piece of pinkish gray (7.5YR7/2) limestone and white chert and measuring 5.2 x 4.9 x 4.9 cm.




Rounded and shaped limestone artifacts that appear to be slingstones though they could also function as crude weights.




Four of the five archaeologists (left to right: Earl Ertman, Al Hoerth, Michael Fuller and Abd el Fattah el Sabbahy) that participated on the 1978 field season. Missing is Professor Hans Goedicke.




An abandoned military bunker built of concrete was the headquarters for the 1978 expedition. The baseline for measuring the site started at its southwest corner.




Landrover rented from ARCE and used during the 1987 field season.



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