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Crusader Era Sites - Middle East

Mons Peregrinus/Qalat Sangil


  • 1070 Fatamids lose control of the town to Banu 'Ammar,

  • 1099 Crusader's besiege Tripoli and it purchases its freedom.

  • 1102 Tripoli forms an alliance with Damascus to repulse Crusader attacks by Raymond de St. Gilles. Crusaders build hilltop castle of Mons Pelerinus.

  • 1109 Tripoli withstands a 4 year siege. Surrenders to Bertrand, Son of Raymond de St. Gilles. Becomes of the seat of the Counts of Tripoli.

  • 1112 to 1137 Pons, son of Berterand reigns during a time of constant warfare with Urturkids. He is killed in battle by Damascene forces under Beza Uch..

  • 1137 to 1152 Raymond II, son of Pons, rules though in face of a counterclaim to reign from Alphonse-Jourdain, count of Toulouse and legitimate son of Raymnond de St. Gilles. Alphonse-Jourdain's sudden death in 1148 may have been from poison.

  • 1152 to 1187 Raymond III, son of Raymond II, rules after his father is killed. He is held captive for 10 years (1164 to 1174) by Nur-ad-Din. He served as regent of Jerusalem for Baldwin IV and Baldwin V. He dies in the battle of the Horns of Hattin.

  • 1187 Principality of Antioch assumes control of Tripoli upon the death of Count Raymond III.

  • 1157 and 1170 Earthquakes damage the town and castle.

  • 1187 to 1233Bohemond IV rules Tripoli. Recaptures territory lost by previous Barons and continues to serve as a port for Muslim caravans bringing goods for Europe.

  • 1233 to 1252 Bohemond V rules Tripoli. Spends more time in Tripoli than Antioch though he hold rulership over both.

  • 1244 Town looted in a raid by Khwarezmian mercenaries.

  • 1252 to 1275 Bohemond VI rules Tripoli. He marries Hetoum of Armenia.

  • 1258 Bohemond VI and Hetoum pay tribute to the Mongols to spare the city.

  • 1266 Mamluk Sultan Baibars captures smaller forts along road to Tripoli.
  • 1268 Baibars captures Antioch. Bohemond VI signs a 10 year truce with Mamluks

  • 1275 to 1287 Bohemond VII rules Tripoli. His mother, Sybil of Armenia, and his sister Lucie, dispute rulership with Bartholomeo Embriaco after the count's death.

  • 26 April 1289 Mamluk Sultan Qala'un captures Tripoli after a 2 month siege.

  • 1307 to 1309 Saif ad-din Esendemir Kurgi, Arab Governor, improves castle.

  • Attested Personages Commanders of the Knights Hospitaliers in Tripoli: Trimond (1192), Bernard d'Avignon (1031), Raymond de Perigord (1198), Guillaume de Tinieres (1216), Robert de Corson (1236), Jean de Ronai (1241), Clement (1248), Pierre d'Avignon (1254), Renaud de Nanteuil (1266 to 1269), Nicolas Lorgne (1275 to 1277), and Jean de Villiers (1277).

Entrance to the castle.

Mamluk inscription over entrance to castle.

Machicolations within the gatehouse.

View from the Machicolation.

Walls of the castle from outside.

Modification of the castle parapet for canons.

Inner castle door with metal armour and heavy studs.

Mamluk inscription over gatehouse door.

Fountain near gatehouse.

Stairway near gatehouse.

Interior view of castle.

Another interior view of the castle.

Arrowslots facing into the interior of the castle.

Interior of castle.

Interior of castle.

Interior View of castle.

Large diwan like hall at the far end of the castle.

Decorated stone from castle interior. Mamluk?

Decorated stone from castle interior. Mamluk?

Decorated stone from castle interior. Mamluk?

Decorated stone from castle interior. Mamluk

Decorated stone with rosette from castle interior. Mamluk? Crusader?

Decorated stone from castle interior. Crusader?


GPS DATA for Tripoli Castle

1. Entrance to castle
North 34 degrees 26.043' and East 35 degrees 50.696'
Approximate elevation of 56 meters above sea level.

2. Tower
North 34 degrees 25.978' and East 35 degrees 50.651'
Approximate elevation of 80 meters above sea level.