The Turner (23BU21A) and Snodgrass (23BU21B) sites are small fortified villages of approximately 1 hectare (2.5 acres) each that were occupied around AD 1300. The sites were discovered by James E. Price in 1966. The Snodgrass Site is situated approximately 100 meters from the Turner Site; the interpretation by the excavator (Price) is that Turner was occupied first, burnt, abandoned, then the Snodgrass site was founded. Fieldwork at the Turner and Snodgrass sites were conducted by archaeologists from the University of Michigan - Ann Arbor.
Archaeologists from the University of Michigan excavating a Mississippian house during June 1969. Turner consisted of 48 house structures that were laid out in streets. Snodgrass contained houses of which only 38 were inside a fortification wall. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image number 28223 taken by James E. Price.

Adapted plan of the Snodgrass site showing palisade, white wall, and house stains. Plan from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image no. 18220 made in October 1970.

Professor James E. Griffin in the photography tower at the Turner Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image no. 28196 taken in 1974 by James E. Price.

Arrowpoints from the Turner Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image number 18137 taken in 1967 by James E. Price.


Antler tools discovered in Structure 10 at the Turner Site (23BU21A) during the xxx season. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image no. 28202 taken in 1967 by James E. Price.

Clay ear plug from Structure 8 at the Turner Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image no. 28199 in 1967 by James E. Price.

Clay effigy pot from the structure numbe 1 at the Turner Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the University of Michigan, image number 18134 and 28200 taken in 1967 by James E. Price)

Shell tempered cooking pot from structure number 1 at the Turner Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image no. 18136 taken in 1967 by James E. Price)

Large, polished stone agricultural tool from Structure 7 at the Turner Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image no. 28203 taken in 1967 by James E. Price.

Large charred pieces of wood from burnt house structure 1 at the Turner Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image number 28476 taken in August 1967 by James E. Price.

Archaeologists excavating artifacts and ecofacts from the interior of a house stain at the Snodgrass Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image number 28220 taken in July 1970 by James E. Price.

Pedestalled artifacts and ecofacts inside a Mississippian house stain at the Snodgrass site. Photograph from the digital archives of the University of Michigan, image number 28216 taken in July 1970 by James E. Price.

An archaeologist holds a stadia rod in order to determine the elvation of artifacts and ecofacts found within a house stain at the Snodgrass Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image number 28219 taken in July 1970 by James E. Price.

Jim Krakken pauses while shovel skimming a slit trench for house stains and artifacts at the Snodgrass Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image number 28226 taken by James E. Price.

Slit trenches and house excavation units at the Snodgrass Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image number 28217 taken during July 1970 by James E. Price.

Several house stains are visible in a portion of the Snodgrass site that was stripped of the plowzone. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image no. 18135 taken in 1967 by James E. Price.

Archaeologists beginning the excavation of a houses stain after a portion of the Snodgrass site was stripped of the plowzone and mapped. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image no. 18144 taken in 1969 by James B. Griffin.

Charred wooden timbers and a deer manidble (jawbone) inside of a burnt Mississippian house (structure 20) at the Snodgrass site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image no. 18150 taken in 1969 by James E Price.

Careful excavation with trowels and paint brushes inside a Mississippian house stain; shovel skimming to complete plowzone removal in the background. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image number 28218 taken in July 1970 by James E. Price.

Mapping grid, excavating units and the photographic tower at the Snodgrass Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image number 28213 taken in 1969 by James E. Price.

White discoloration in the soil, after removal of the plowzone, helped identify a defensive wall at the Snodgrass site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image number 28222 taken in June 1969 by James E. Price.

Bob Luton stands by the array of slit trenches were excavated at the Snodgrass site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image number 28225 taken by James E. Price.

A pit feature associated with structure numbe 14 at the Snodgrass site. The pit was filled with mussel shells and interpeted as the workshop area for a Mississippian potter. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image no. 18153 taken in 1969 by James E. Price.

Excavation of a house stain discovered by a slit trench at the Snodgrass Site. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image no 28266 take by Professor James B. Griffin)

Sifting soil from the excavation of a Mississippian house stain. Photograph from the digital archives of the University of Michigan, image no. 19656 taken in 1973 by George Struber.

Pottery ladle with a handle that resembles a dipper gourd. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image numbers 18135 and 28205 taken in 1967 by James E. Price.

Pottery trowel and sherds found in situ. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image number 28204 taken in 1968 by James E. Price.

Charred timbers pedestalled by the archaeologists excavating inside of a structure 1. Photograph from the digital archives of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, image no. 28475 taken in 1967 by James E. Price.
Radiocarbon dates for the Turner-Snodgrass Site published by Chapman (1980:273):

M-1957 House 2, AD 1450 +/- 100
M-1958 House 2, AD 1380 +/- 100
M-1959 House 4, AD 1230 +/- 100
M-1960 House 4, AD 1390 +/- 100
M-1961 House 6, AD 1140 +/- 100
M-1962 House 6, AD 1390 +/- 100
M-1963 House 8, AD 1390 +/- 100
M-1964 House 8, AD 1220 +/- 100

Bibliography

Chapman, Carl H.
1980 The Archaeology of Missouri, II. University of Missouri Press, Columbia.

O'Brien, Michael J. (Editor)
2001 Mississippian community organization : the Powers Phase in Southwestern Missouri. Edited by Michael J. O'Brien. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

O'Brien, Michael J. and W. Raymond Wood
1998 The Prehistory of Missouri. University of Missouri Press, Columbia.

Price, James, E.
1978 The Settlement Pattern of the Powers Phase. in Mississippian Settlement Patterns. Edited by Bruce D. Smith. Academic Press, New York.

Smith, Bruce D.
1975 Middle Mississippi Exploitation of Animal Populations. University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology Papers 57.
1978 Prehistoric Patterns of Human Behavior. Academic Press, New York.
Thanks to Karen O'Brien (Collections Manager, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan) and John Speth (Curator, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan) for permission to use the digital images from the Museum of Anthropology at the University of Michigan. Special thanks to Dr. James E. Price (Southeast Missouri Archaeological Center) for his fine fieldwork and excellent lectures at the Missouri Archaeological Society on this site. Many smiles to Ettus Hiatt for her help with text and content editing.
Webpage Created 5 June 2009