Serrated Scallorn projectile point discovered during 2017 by Eric Fuller, archaeologist on staff at Smallin Cave park in Ozark, MO. The Scallorn point was manufactured from a heat treated chert flake that visually has the characteristics of Crescent Quarry chert typical of the prehistoric mines in Jefferson and St. Louis Counties, MO. Length = 23.8 mm, width = 12.0 mm, thickness = 3.3 mm and weight = 0.9 grams. This arrowpoint closely resembles serrated Scallorn points found at several Mississippian sites in Missouri. For example, similar points where excavated from the Turner-Snodgrass site (23BU21) where radiocarbon dates ranged from AD 1140+/-100 to AD 1450 +/-100 (Chapman 1980:273). There are many parallels for this point type from 23JE400 which is situated downstream along the Big River in Jefferson County (Henning and Collins 2009:55, Figure 10a-o). A single calibrated radiocarbon date from 23JE400 is Cal. AD 1030 – 1230 (Henning and Collins 2009:Table 2) and they interpret the site as contemporaneous with the Lohmann and possibly Stirling phases at Cahokia. Henning and Lohmann (2009:18) attribute 23JE400 to the Big River Phase that they place as earlier than the Ware Phase. They follow Kreslin (1964) who placed the Ware phase as coeval with the Sand Prairie phase in the American Bottoms. A parallel point, simply labeled a stemmed point (Milner 1983: Figure 26j) is illustrated from feature 44 (a burial of two adults with multiple offerings) at the East St. Louis Stone Quarry Site Cemetery in the American Bottoms; that site is associated with the Sand Prairie Phase in the American bottoms dating approximately AD 1350 to 1400. Chapman (1980:312) notes that Scallorn points are found in all regions of Missouri. This artifact type is a stemmed arrowpoint with small, sharp barbs. Chapman notes that length ranges from 20 to 57 mm with the average of 25 to 35 mm. Chapman associates Scallorn points with the Late Woodland Period (AD 400 - 900) and Mississippi Period (AD 900 - 1400).
Resharpened/exhausted Snyders point that was excavated by Ron Wyatt in 1959 at a depth of 9 inches below the surface in the crevice located 10 ft. NE of the “Mighty Thunderbird.” Length = 37.6 mm, width = 30.3, thickness = 6.7 mm, and weight = 4.5 grams. Chapman (1980:312) notes that Snyders points are found in all portions of Missouri, but with the greatest frequency in the Northeast region. This artifact type is a large, broad-bladed, corner notched blade with expanding stem and convex base. Chapman notes that length ranges from 50 to 150 mm with the average of 70 to 80 mm. DeRegnaucourt (1991:229 - 233) notes that this artifact type is found in Ohio and summarizes measurements from ninteen specimens: Length = 42 to 75mm, width = 31 to 52 mm, thickness = 6 to 12 mm and weight = 8.2 to 37.3 grams. Chapman associates Snyders points with the Middle Woodland Period (from 500 BC to AD 400) though examples appear as early as the Late Archaic Period (3000 - 1000 BC). Morrow (1984:38) observed that Snyder points are common in the eastern-third of Iowa. Sandstrom and Ray (2004:26) note that Snyders points are widely scattered but uncommon in the Ozark region of Missouri. Snyders points were documented in the FAI-270 work around Cahokia at the Holding Site (Fortier 1989: Figure 125m-q, Plate i). Several examples of Snyders points have been documented at excavated Middle Woodland sites in St. Louis County: the Creve Couer Site (Silverman 1971; Blake 1942; n.d.) and the Cowmire Creek Site (Craig and Vorreyer 2004) .
Small bodysherd of Korando Cordmarked ware excavated by Ron Wyatt in 1959 from the crevice feature at Washington State Park Site A (23WA1).
Rounded base fragment excavated by Ron Wyatt in 1959 at a depth of 21 inches below the surface in the crevice in square B; Weight = 5.6 grams. This base is similar to an intact Waubesa point discovered at the BBB Motor Site in the American Bottoms (Johannessen 1984:Figure 19b, 100). The Waubesa point type dates to the Early and Middle Woodland Period in Southwest Missouri (Sandstrom and Ray 2004:62); Washington Park A is nearly in the bulls-eye for the distribution of Waubesa points (Ray 2016:Figure 90).This fragment resembles intact Waubesa points from the Florence Street site (Fortier 1984:Figure 25), and the Holding Site (Fortier et al. 1989: 349, Figure 124e-h).
Base fragment of a projectile point excavated by Ron Wyatt in 1959 at a depth of 22 inches below the surface in the crevice in excavation square F; Weight = 4.3 grams. Damage during excavation give the wrong impression that the artifact had been reused as a drill. My thoughts on the identification of this point have ranged across several types. The simplest solution is to tentatively identify this artifact as the base of a Steuben point; similar to the examples that Ray (2016:Figure 83e) illustrates from Oregon County, MO. Chapman (1980:313) notes that Steuben points are found in all regions of Missouri, but the greatest numbers are in the Northeast and Northwest regions. Chapman notes that length ranges from 38 to 100 mm with most specimens measuring between of 38 to 50 mm; thickness varies from 6 to 10 mm. DeRegnaucourt (1991:239) notes that this artifact type is similar to Lowe points found in Ohio and Indiana. Chapman associates Steuben points with the Middle Woodland (500 BC to AD 400) and Late Woodland Period (AD 400 to 900). Morrow (1984:42) observed that Steuben points occur primarily in the eastern third of Iowa. Ray (2016:122) notes that the Steuben point type ranges in age from the Late Middle Woodland into the early Late Woodland, approximately AD 200 - 700. Steuben points were recovered during the FAI-270 project near Cahokia from several sites including Leingang (Bentz et al: 51, 54, Figure 15e-i) and Holding (Fortier et al. 1989:354, plate 46n).
Base fragment of a shallow side notched point excavated by Ron Wyatt in 1959 at a depth of 18 to 19 inches below the surface in the crevice in square C; Weight = 3.3 grams. Identification is problematic with such a small specimen. My thoughts on the identification of this point have ranged across several types. The simplest solution is to tentatively identify as a very fragment Steuben point; similar to the examples that Ray (2016:Figure 83e) illustrates from Oregon County, MO. The dark lithic material is rhyolite that was available in limited outcrops in Southeast Missouri dating to the PreCambrian Period.
Tip and midsection of a broken point that was excavated by Ron Wyatt in 1959 at a depth of 22 inches below the surface in test pit A; weight = 5.0 grams.
Galena cube that was excavated by Ron Wyatt in 1959 in test pit "C" at a depth of 14 to 20 inches below the surface in the crevice. Length = 1.23 cm, width = 1.29 cm, thickness = 1.02 cm and weight = 7.3 grams.
Angular piece of hematite that was excavated by Ron Wyatt in 1959 in test pit D, Level 1 (0 – 6 inches deep). Weight = 43.5 grams. 37 medium (fit in the palm of the hand) hematite specimens were excavated by Wyatt in 1959. The combined weigh of the 27 specimens is 1.94 kilograms = 4.27 pounds
Angular piece of Druse Quartz that was excavated by Ron Wyatt in 1959 in square B in level IV (31 - 35 inches below the surface of the crevice). Weight = 227.1 grams. Twelve medium (palm sized) druse quartz specimens were excavated from the crevice at 23WA1; their total weight is 1.99 kilograms = (4.38 pounds). Quartz druse was always found in the same artifact bags as the hematite, but a few artifact bags contained only hematite. The small sparkling crystals have a star-like quality. One Osage informant suggested to Eric Fuller (personal communication 2018) that the druse quart crystals resemble snow – something that associates with Winter, death, and the underworld.
Angular piece of Druse Quartz that was excavated by Ron Wyatt in 1959 in square B, Level IV (18 – 24 inches). Weight = 107.4 grams.
Diabase celt excavated from the nearby site of 23WA23. Length = 10.87 cm, width = x 6.35 x 3.43 cm. Weight = 358.9 grams. Associated with the celt was a shell tempered bottle (neck broken) and a shell tempered pottery jar (two handled). The museum inventory registration esimates the date for the pottery pieces as AD 1200. Eleanor Chapman used this artifact as her inspiration for an illustration of the cutting the petroglyphs at Washington State Park (Chapman and Chapman 1964:88).
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