MONEY, SOCIAL CLASS AND DECORATIVE TASTE IN FLAVIAN POMPEII

Eleanor Winsor Leach
Department of Classical Studies at Indiana
University, Bloomington

For the interpretive history of Roman domestic wall painting it is unfortunate that the fullest account of a prosperous freedman's house, that owned by the merchant Trimalchio in Petronius' novel, the Satyricon, exists in a context of satire and paints a picture of exhibitionist excesses more relevant to the pretensions of the Emperor Nero than any probable real life freedman.1 The consequence is that Pompeian houses such as the House of the Vettii belonging to identifiable freedpersons, or citizens outside the ordo decurionis, are habitually referred to Trimalchio's paradigm of poor taste.2 In fact the paintings on the Vettii exhibit some of the most refined decorative detail of their day within a total program susceptible of complex interpretation.3 The artist who supplied the mythological panels of the Red Room was the same who executed those heroic images in the Basilica at Herculaneum about which early excavators waxed enthusiastic.

Does Pompeii in fact show any correlation between social class and the style of domestic decoration? I shall take up this question by comparing the states of decoration hypostatized by the Vesuvian eruption in two different sectors of Pompeian society. The first of these is topographical consisting of a secluded residential neighborhood of large houses on the upper Via di Mercurio in Region 6 of the city. The second is a cross-city demographic sampling of houses belonging to persons who achieved or aspired to political office during the decade of the 70's. The point of inquiry is the manner in which these two sectors had recovered from the damaging effects of the earthquake of 62, or alternatively how they were responding to what volcanologists have suggested was a series of shocks that troubled the years between 62 and the final catastrophe.4

The earthquake has provided an epicenter for inquiry in many categories. Historians have considered its effect upon the socio-economic structuring of the town.5 Students of painting have made this event a marker from which to seek continuity or discontinuity in the Fourth Style.6 No less interesting than the aesthetic debate, at least from a social point of view is the distribution of new painting across the city. In houses where the visible presence or absence of repair attest to damage, one may observe which owners had completely renovated their houses and which were content to mend and patch their old decorations. Taking the extent of redecoration as an index of prosperity and political candidacy as a sign of status, one may consider certain inter-relationships:7

  1. Wealth and status
  2. Status and taste
  3. Wealth and taste.

The more ambitious and more thoroughgoing programs of renovation occur in the prosperous Via di Mercurio neighborhood whose inhabitants include bronze and silver merchants, a fullery owner and a merchant of unknown background, but only one family currently holding political office. Although any one of these citizens might have entered into the cursus honorum at a future time, it remains that they had not done so. Among the magistrates' houses, which are broadly distributed throughout all regions of the city, there is far less evidence for new decoration. Only one family, the Lucretii Valentes would appear to have turned necessary repairs into a complete campaign of Fourth Style decoration. Others contented themselves with partial repairs while retaining the paintings of earlier periods.

First let us look at the Via di Mercurio. From the arch of Julio Claudian date that at once frames and screens its territory, this broadest of Pompeian streets opens a spacious prospect to the tower at the city wall (FIGURE 1). The 19th century archaeologist, August Mau, spoke of this street, in contrast with the Via dell'Abbondanza and Via di Nola as a quiet residential place.8 (FIGURE 2) Like the majority of Pompeian neighborhoods it was heterogeneous in population. In spite of the imposing houses whose entrance portals were spaced at irregular intervals in the course of its two blocks, the varied nature and size of its buildings indicates a characteristically Pompeian synthesis of interests and even classes where current decuriones, rich merchants and small tradesmen rubbed shoulders within the network of patronage attested by electoral programmata on the walls. A narrow, but well-travelled crossroad, the Vicolo di Mercurio, divided its two insulae, the lower of which, on the side towards the Forum offered a variety of commercial establishments (FIGURE 3). In the upper insula reaching towards the city wall, two prosperous owners, who conducted businesses dealing in luxury goods, attached their sources of income to their houses. Within such a neighborhood residents might find a portion of their needs readily satisfied.

Signs of early prosperity are obvious in the form of double atrium houses. The street boasts two unusual atria; a Corinthian in the Casa dei Dioscuri (6.9.6-7), and a singular hexastyle in a house converted into a fullonica (6.8.20). Another house, the Casa dell'Argenteria, has one of Pompeii's few marked vestibular spaces with lofty Corinthian columns flanking the entrance. In their later days these houses gloried in water. Two viridaria are built around large mosaic fountains; the Casa di Apollo (6.7.23) contained two separate gardens, both landscaped around small pools, while files of rooms on two stories in the Casa dell'Ancora (6.10.11) surrounded a sunken garden with fountains and statuary. Peristyles in the larger houses featured large fish ponds. Several houses, such as the Casa di Meleagro (6.9.2) and Casa dei Dioscuri had installed fountain jets fed from the aqueduct in their impluvia.9 Needless to say, a utilitarian water-supply was important to the operations of the fullonica, but this building also contained a marble fountain in the impluvium of its restructured atrium near the show room.10

Virtually every house on the Via di Mercurio had sustained some damage, some more, some less, but the neighborhood is notable for the consistency with which its inhabitants, amid differing circumstances, had made their effort of recovery from the earthquake. In the majority of houses repairs have long since been completed. Virtually every house had some new painting. Survivals of Republican painting are infrequent, but even Third Style decoration of the Julio-Claudian period is rare. In some cases we can see marks of the same painter or workshop. Some houses have rooms with marble revetment as their chief luxury.

The interiors of two fully redecorated mansions combine grandiose colonnaded spaces with monumental picture galleries in some of their rooms. Both owners were merchants who proclaimed their sources of income by images of Mercury in the entrance corridors of their houses.

As a dealer in bronze the owner of the Casa dei Dioscuri had encoded his name, Nigidius Vaccula in the bronze bovine legs of benches he donated both to the Forum and to the Stabian baths. 11 (Plan 1) For the decoration of their restored house the family had enlisted a roster of pictores imaginarii, specialists in mythological panels who, as Richardson has shown, were among the most valued in Pompeii.

Creating a felicitous integration of painting and architecture, the artists designed spaces to be seen through and across each other (FIGURE 4)). In the atrium where the forest of columns preempted the entire central area and blocked lateral views, the the team of decorators made advantageous use of the architecturally defined spaces. (FIGURES 5-6). The background was a very simple paratactic panel decoration, predominantly red. Corners were articulated by fluted pilasters with Corinthian capitals that harmonized with the columns, while polychrome figures of divinities in statue-like form, nine in all, were placed at the centers of some panels. (FIGURE 7) The double framing in the interstices of the columns enhanced the illusion of the figures to make them resemble statues in niches. The largest and most conspicuous was a polychrome Jupiter standing to the right of the entering visitor on the west wall.(FIGURE 8) On the south side the space broadened into a deep bay that formed a transitional vestibulum for the peristyle. This area, whose masonry shows it to have been formed during late remodelling,12 was the most ornate sector of the atrium with majestic images of Ceres and Apollo flanking the doorway on the inner wall and a small painting of Perseus and Andromeda above.

In contrast to the restrained decoration of the atrium, that of the tablinum was elaborate and grandiose. (FIGURE 9) On a wall of extraordinary height was a large aedicula pattern that would easily have been visible from the interior of the atrium. The design aimed for an effect of breadth. Projecting podia enclose the aedicola, supporting columns and figures of two Muses. Its particular elegance was created by graceful columns in the apertures projecting with a double ressaut. Behind these appears a curved circle of coffering so that the a complete hemicycle appears to encircle the aedicula from behind. The painting itself is placed against a bordered red panel whose woven corners rest on figures. A gold border is formed of griffins, bull-head lyres which Zahn reproduced carefully. 13 The architecture contains gilded ornaments. The side panels consist of blue curtains stretched from rods with floating figures at their centers. Polychrome landscapes are in the frieze zone. Two framed large scale paintings represent critical moments of Achilles' career: his discovery by Odysseus on Skyros (FIGURE 10)and the quarrel of Agamemnon and Achilles (FIGURE 11).

Next to the tablinum, the peristyle was the showplace where the finest pictures were situated. (FIGURE 12) Spacious as it is, with broad corridors behind the porticoes, it seems to appropriate even greater space through the apertures of its decoration. Large yellow curtains structure a paratactic decoration with small apertures between. (FIGURE 13) Small still life panels appeared on the pilasters and there were occasional polychrome figures on the walls. Among the more unusual painted simulations were two large scale candelabra which decorated interior piers at the western end of the enclosure. They were ornamented with figures enacting the slaughter of the Niobids: the female victims on one side, the young men on the other. (FIGURE 14) The panel paintings were large. Two of the best known, Perseus rescuing Andromeda (FIGURE 15), and Medea with her children (FIGURE 16), were placed on the end piers of the colonnade where they will have been visible through the large doorway of the grand Cyzecene oecus that opened at the eastern end of the space. This large room, fully half the size of the peristyle itself, was designed in close-coordination with the colonnade. A basket weave pattern in the pavement demarcated a kind of antechamber space in the porticus outside. The interior was revetted in its entirety with a pattern in marble veneer.14 Given the advantageous situation of this marble-clad oecus, not to mention the expense its finishing will have entailed, one should not be surprised that the Nigidii had made it their chief investment on behalf of hospitality. From within this opulently furnished space, the spectator enjoyed a simultaneously double vista encompassing both of the two colonnaded enclosures. On the one side its broad doorway opened a vista across the fountain and piscina framed by mythological panel paintings (FIGURE 17), while a large window on the other side looked towards a smaller viridarius with a backdrop of garden paintings.(FIGURE 18).

In contrast to the variety of painters who worked in the Dioscuri, their neighbor L. Cornelius Primogenes15 entrusted his entire mythological decoration to one painter who completed an extraordinary amount of work.16 (Plan 2). In an interior that had seen extensive restructuring as well as repainting virtually every room was a picture gallery, even to the atrium and small surrounding chambers. (FIGURE 19) More commonly atrium decorations are paratactic and without large panel paintings. A frieze of Nereids on sea-beasts surrounding the principal rooms (FIGURE 20) gives an element of continuity as also theatrical motifs employed in various contexts, yet one would hesitate to call the assemblage of paintings themselves programmatic. The easiest space to reconstruct is the tablinum where mythological panel paintings of Mars and Venus (FIGURE 21)/ Io and Argus are surmounted by a richly ornamented stage front decoration in raised stucco (FIGURES 22-23). The peristyle (FIGURE 24) was a complete gallery with 27 small panels (FIGURE 25) and the house boasted one of Pompeii's two Corinthian oeci (FIGURES 26-27). "A man who liked giving banquets." was how Tatiana Warsher characterized the owner.

Lest we think that these extensive redecorations were necessitated by uniform damage, the neighbors in between, the Vettii of the Casa del Centauro, a duoviral father and adoptive son, had only a couple of new Fourth Style roms in their house. We are able to identify these and other candidates for election because of the posters urging support which are painted on whitewashed facades across town. (FIGURE 28) By observing the order in which these notices are layered, epigraphers, especially James Franklin have been able to reconstruct the slates for the final decade of the city's life, and a number of candidates can be matched with houses identifiable by epigraphical evidence.17

Notably these houses are by no means clustered within an elite district as had been the case in Republican Rome. Although some stood on main arteries, others were located on very small streets in districts that seem remote. This pattern may well go back to the days of Sullan colonization when patrons arriving from Rome to play large roles in the government had the wisdom not to displace established inhabitants but rather settled where available space permitted building or remodelling.18 Not only are magistrates' houses scattered but also as we shall see in this brief survey, they are scarcely all of one size. Among house owners also a great variety of backgrounds indicates how much amalgamated Pompeian society by the late first century A.D. had become. Candidates include some of everyone: sons of consistently active families and those returning to the municipal scene after many years' inactivity. Some are linear descendants and others adopted. Some families rose during the Neronian era and other go back to the Augustan. The numbers include two freedmen with strong imperial connections, the class that most clearly enjoyed social mobility in Pompeii.

Among these persons the only family to have undertaken a complete redecoration campaign were the Lucretii Valentes, who lived in the Casa della Venere in Conchiglia on the far end of the Via dell'Abbondanza not far from the amphitheater whose spectacles they had generously funded during the 60's in honor of Nero.19 (Plan 3) With virtually every door frame house needing reinforcement, their house had suffered serious damage from the earthquake; rather than content themselves with patchwork and mending they had comissioned a total program which included seven picture gallery rooms with mythological paintings in Fourth Style architectural settings. On the walls of the atrium were gold panels that imitated hanging tapestries, each with a medallion at its center representing one of the four seasons. (FIGURE 29) Lacking a tablinum, its broad door opened into a deep bay on the inner side of the peristyle (FIGURE 30). When this door stood open it afforded a long directed prospect through a framing pair of columns to the back of the garden where a large banner depicted Venus, Pompeii's patron goddess, floating on a sea-shell and surrounded by Amorini. (FIGURE 31) Colorfully decorated on its inner walls with red and gold tapestry imitations, this peristyle was the show-place around which a variety of decorated rooms were clustered. Venus' simulated tapestry stands out against a background of garden paintings with thematic sculpture that expanded visible space (FGURES 32-34).

Largest of all the houses in its ground area was the Casa del Citarista, named for a statue of Apollo Citheroedus (FIGURE 35), which housed the aedilician candidates of 78 and 75, L. Popidius Secondus and Popidius Numianus a pair of first cousins, descended from freedman brothers. (Plan 4) Located at the intersection of the Abbondanza and Via di Stabiae, the current double house is an agglomeration of two once separate dwellings opening respectively onto the two streets. The juncture brought together two peristyles on different levels (FIGURES 36-37)and a third was appropriated from an adjoining house. (FIGURE 38) Surrounding the peristyles were a variety of picture gallery rooms that have yielded many large panel paintings to the Museum. Stylistic dating has placed them from second (FIGURE 39) to Fourth Style (FIGURE 40) suggesting a history of recurrent renovation which the architectural evidence corroborates.20 Franklin has shown that the title of Augustianus born by the Elder Popidius indicated his membership in the claque of programmed applauders who attended the theatrical performances of Nero. Strong Neronian loyalty is indicated by the portrait sculptures apparently representing family members yet showing many characteristics of Julio-Claudian family portraiture.21

Grandeur from an earlier period survives in the house of their across the street neighbor, M. Epidius Sabinus, aedile of 74 and duovir of 77.22 (Plan 5) Mounting a small platform, reminiscent of those in the public world of the Forum (FIGURE 41), the visitor enters into a space whose Corinthian columns are complemented by those screening two flanking exedrae (FIGURES 42-43). The remains of heavy dentillated cornices in molded stucco show that this room had preserved its original decoration in the august masonry style over two centuries. Only one space, a windowed triclinium giving on the garden had been repainted during the late third style period with a program of panels and figures celebrating Apollo and the Muses. But the house had suffered extensive damage and was still in restoration. The tablinum was unplastered and other rooms in various stages of repainting. The only space fully completed was one of the two exedrae in which two freedman brothers had dedicated an altar to the genius of Epidius Rufus, their patron and the father of the living magistrate (FIGURE 44).

The large number of instances in which this masonry decoration had been preserved in Pompeii suggests an effort beyond mere economy. rather this will have had some semantic value in proclaiming reverence for tradition: a continuous thread from the past.23 First style houses were Samnite, not Roman and one scholar has even suggested that their maintenance reflects family continuity from the pre-colonial period.24 This is certainly possible for the Epidii whose name is Oscan, based upon a divinity of the Sarno River. But in another instance, the house ascribed to the imperial freedman, Julius Polibius, with its magnificent first style vestibulum (FIGURES 45-46), the only monumental vestibular space in Pompeii, whose gallery is reminiscent of public architecture, continuity is most unlikely.25 Here the significance of preserved first style would indicate pride of possession and respect for the tradition into which Polybius had entered both as magistrate and as a new owner.

If the semiotic of masonry decoration stood for Pompeii's earliest period, the marble incrustation style that entered the city with the Sullan colonists may have also have been valued for its historical referentiality. Paintings with marble revetments and columns are described by Vitruvius (De Architectura 7.5.1) in a manner that corresponds closely with late Republican decoration on the Palatine Hill.26 One candidate who had preserved it was L. Albucius Celsus who stood for aedile in 78.(Plan 6) His large house with its overpowering tetrastyle atrium has the distinction of being furthest from the center of all magistrates' houses in the decade(FIGURES 47-48). At the time of their construction its Rhodian peristyle will have been on the cutting edge of Hellenistic fashion(FIGURE 49 ) and likewise the architectural rarity, a tetrastyle oecus (FIGURE 50), one of our few examples of a type described by Vitruvius (De Architectura 6.8.3).27 This oecus forms one of a group of rooms at the back of the peristyle which, in summer, will have enjoyed the shade afforded by the raised North portico.28 Three rooms on the rear corridor, distributed with an almost geometrical symmetry, and decorated in complementary patterns, are among Pompeii's best preserved examples of Second Style "incrustation" (FIGURE 51). At the center was a small square exedra painted entirely in yellow monochrome, even to the garlands looped within the intercolumniations, which thereby appear to be sculpted in low relief of the same substance as the wall.(FIGURE 52) Fine architectural details include brackets in the form of human figures and a simulated loggia of short fluted columns. Flanking this space are a pair of barrel-vaulted chambers decorated with incrustation patterns and simulated columns in the popular color combination of porphyry, giallo antico and green, colors frequently seen in the mosiac floor decorations of the period (FIGURES 53-54). That Albucius set a high valuation upon the traditional associations of his colonial decoration appears certain from the fact that new decorations being installed in the atrium were actually following the same panel divisions as the prior painting they replaced (FIGURE 54).

Perhaps also linked with family history was the preservation in the House of Trebius Valens of a canonical second style room (FIGURE 56) off an atrium that stood stripped of its plaster in 79 (FIGURE 57). (Plan 7) Decoration in surrounding rooms, including a handsome tablinum suggest that it will have been third style (FIGURE 58). Descended from an old family Trebius had stood for aedile in 73. What was the outcome we can only guess from the fact that his name does not occur again, but he continued as a rogator to endorse candidates on the ample facade of his house. Although the house is not large, it possesses a well-appointed garden area featuring a fountain and outdoor triclinium (FIGURES 56-60), and more amenities, including a small bath suite, than the houses some duoviral candidates.

Another aedilician candidate whose luck remains unknown, and whose recently repaired house was still undergoing redecoration is P. Vedius Nummianus who lived with his father in Region 7 near the Stabian Baths in another cross-insula arrangement with interconnecting peristyles.29(Plan 8) The upper portion (7.1.25) was entered from the actively traversed Via Stabiana (FIGURE 61); the other entry (7.1.47) (FIGURE 62), is located on the Vicolo del Lupanare, the less than respectable throughway that connected between the Via degli Augustali and Via del Abbondanza. The union of the two is shown by their marble impluvia. In the lower house we find an atrium still bare of plaster, with a few traces of egg and dart cornice to show its original second style. Decoration had, however been completed in the large oecus opening onto it (FIGURES 63-64). Paintings in this picture gallery concern the Trajan War, including a unique representation of Apollo and Neptune building the walls of Troy (FIGURE 65). a border frieze by the same hand that did the Temple of Isis (FIGURE 66). The well known painting of the wounded Aeneas, a singular case of literary illustration appears in a seemingly undamaged third style room that had apparently no need for redecoration. (FIGURE 67-68). Given that the lower house was larger, yet incomplete with a less distinguished address, and the upper smaller but finished we may wonder which belonged to father and which to son.

An even greater state of decorative disarray characterized the small house of C. Ceius Secundus who had just completed the Pompeian cursus honorum (Plan 9).30 This house, which was unusually small for a magistrate' residence, stood directly across the Casa del Menandro in a quiet corner of Region 1 (FIGURE 69-70)Because Secondus was a newcomer to the political scene, Mariette De Vos suggests that he may even have purchased a house that had been damaged by the earthquake and was in need of repairs. Extant decorations show three stages: a coherent Third Style campaign (FIGURES 71-72), attempted repairs of these paintings in the same manner, and a few Fourth Style additions, most significantly a megalographic painting of a battle among animals such as those commonly staged in the amphitheatre (FIGURE 73).31 Possibly then Secundus did repair the house during his candidacy and added the grandiose peristyle program after his first political success. At the moment of the eruption however, he would seem to have been in the process of expanding the house by an upper story because a screen wall in opus craticum, still unfinished, had been built over the Third Style paintings to conceal the stair (FIGURE 74). This addition must indeed have been desirable to accommodate the house to social rituals because the ground floor offers very little utilitarian space, but it had temporarily left one of the major adjoining rooms, that between peristyle and atrium in want of decoration. That storage space was at a premium is indicated by the building of cupboards beneath the atrium stairs.

Among the conclusions to which this evidence leads me are a negative correlation between display and status, confirming suggestions in Willem Jongman's economic survey of Pompeii. Six of our candidates obtained both offices during the period in question.(Diagram) Epidius Sabinus had run for duovir with his residence still disordered by the process of repair. The same appears true for the aedilician campaigns of L. Albucius Celsus, P. Vedius Nummianus and Trebius Valens, The fairly undisturbed state of three houses on the Via dell'Abbondanza belonging to Pacquius Proculus and C. Cuspius Pansa suggest that what was not broken did not get fixed. There is very little evidence for gratuitous re-decoration on a political basis alone and also a suggestion of pains taken in preserving old decorations, not only in the case of the first style as often remarked but also the second and even the third.

One reason perhaps for the less ambitious programs may have been the expense of campaigning itself. Notably the Lucretii who did redecorate also stopped sponsoring amphitheater games which were an established means for candidates to curry popularity. As already mentioned, the houses belonging to magistrates were of variable sizes, some relatively small. However, barring the obvious differences in expenditure between the Via di Mercurio owners and the magistrates, the kinds of decoration employed show no perceptible difference in quality or subject matter that might be labelled as distinctions in taste. Altogether the Nigidii, the Popidii, the Vedii and Lucretii are similar in their penchant for mythological pictures. Thus it would seem that the same codes of status and culture govern decorative decorum across class lines. Cultural consensus determines taste and prevails over any particularities of background.

ILLUSTRATIONS LIST

PLANS

Plan 1 = Via di Mercurio Reg. 6, Insula 9; Casa dei Dioscuri, Pompeii 6.9.6-7

Plan 2 = Casa di Meleagro, Pompeii 6.9.2

Plan 3 = Casa della Venere in Conchiglia, Pompeii 2.3.3

Plan 4 = Casa del Citarista, Pompeii 1.4.5

Plan 5 = House of Epidius Sabinus (or Rufus), Pompeii 9.1.20

Plan 6 = Casa delle Nozze d'Argento, Pompeii 5.2.1

Plan 7 = House of Trebius Valens 3.2.1

Plan 8 = Houses of P. Vedius Siricus and P. Vedius Nummianus, Pompeii 7. 1. 25/47

Plan 9 = House of L. Ceius Secundus, Pompeii 1.6.15

DIAGRAM

Annual Electoral Slates, reconstructed by Prof. James L. Franklin Jr. (With notes on magistrates' houses by EWL)

SLIDES

Figure 1 = Via di Mercurio, View through Arch

Figure 2 = Via di Mercurio, Upper Insula, looking North

Figure 3 = Via do Mercurio, Lower Insula, looking SW

Figure 4 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Atrium from above

Figure 5 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Atrium

Figure 6 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Atrium, entrance to peristyle

Figure 7 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Image of Saturn from the Atrium now in National Archaeological Museum, Naples

Figure 8 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Image of Jupiter from the Atrium now in National Archaeological Museum, Naples

Figure 9 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Tablinum

Figure 10 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Painting from the Tablinum, Achilles on Skyros, now in National Archaeological Museum, Naples

Figure 11 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Painting from the Tablinum, Achilles and Agamemnon, now in National Archaeological Museum, Naples

Figure 12 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Peristyle, looking east

Figure 13 = Casa dei Dioscuri, peristyle, North wall

Figure 14 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Decorative Image from the Peristyle, Candelabrum with Niobids, now in National Archaeological Museum, Naples

Figure 15 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Painting from the Peristyle, Perseus Rescuing Andromeda, now in National Archaeological Museum, Naples

Figure 16 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Painting from the Tablinum, Medea and her Children, now in National Archaeological Museum, Naples

Figure 17 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Peristyle, View from the Cyzycene Oecus, looking West

Figure 18 = Casa dei Dioscuri, Viridarium, View from the Cyzycene Oecus, looking North

Figure 19 = Casa di Meleagro, Atrium

Figure 20 = Casa di Meleagro, Peristyle, Oecus with Nereids in Dado

Figure 21 = Casa di Meleagro, Painting from the tablinum, Mars and Venus, now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples.

Figure 22 = Casa di Meleagro, Theatrical facade decoration from the tablinum frieze zone, now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples.

Figure 23 = Casa di Meleagro, Theatrical facade decoration from the tablinum frieze zone, now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples.

Figure 24 = Casa di Meleagro, View of the Peristyle.

Figure 25 = Casa di Meleagro, Painting from the peristyle, Ariadne Abandoned, now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples.

Figure 26 = Casa di Meleagro, peristyle, Corinthian oecus

Figure 27 = Casa di Meleagro, peristyle, view from the Corinthian oecus

Figure 28 = Via dell'Abbondanza, Painted Electoral Programmata

Figure 29 = Casa della Venere in Conchiglia, Atrium

Figure 30 = Casa della Venere in Conchiglia, Peristyle, North corridor and bay

Figure 31 = Casa della Venere in Conchiglia, Peristyle, View towards rear (West) wall.

Figure 32 = Casa della Venere in Conchiglia, Peristyle, Painting of Venus on the West Wall

Figure 33 = Casa della Venere in Conchiglia, Peristyle, Garden paintings on the rear (West) wall.

Figure 34 = Casa della Venere in Conchiglia, Peristyle, Garden paintings on the rear (West) wall.

Figure 35 = Casa del Citarista, Statue of Apollo Citharoedus, now in the National Archeological Museum, Naples

Figure 36 = Casa del Citarista, View South across peristyles

Figure 37 = Casa del Citarista, Central peristyle, looking East

Figure 38 = Casa del Citarista, Third peristyle

Figure 39 = Casa del Citarista, Second Style Panel painting, "Mars and Venus" now in the National Archeological Museum, Naples

Figure now in the National Archeological Museum, Naples

Figure 40 = Casa del Citarista, Fourth Style Mythological Panel, " Argus and Io," now in the National Archeological Museum, Naples

Figure 41 = House of Epidius Sabinus, Entrance Platform

Figure 42 = House of Epidius Sabinus, Corinthian atrium

Figure 43 = House of Epidius Sabinus, Exedra in atrium

Figure 44 = House of Epidius Sabinus, Dedication in Exedra

Figure 45 = House of C. Julius Polibius, Facade on the Via dell'Abbondanza

Figure 46 = House of C. Julius Polibius, Vestibulum

Figure 47 = Casa delle Nozze d'Argento, Tetrastyle atrium

Figure 48 = Casa delle Nozze d'Argento, Tetrastyle atrium from above

Figure 49 = Casa delle Nozze d'Argento, Rhodian peristyle

Figure 50 = Casa delle Nozze d'Argento, Tetrastyle oecus in peristyle

Figure 51 = Casa delle Nozze d'Argento, Rhodian peristyle, rear corridor

Figure 52 = Casa delle Nozze d'Argento, Second style exedra in peristyle

Figure 53 = Casa delle Nozze d'Argento, Second style camera in peristyle.

Figure 54 = Casa delle Nozze d'Argento, Second style camera in peristyle, imitation of marble incrustation.

Figure 55 = Casa dell Nozze d'Argento, Atrium walls in the process of redecoration

Figure 56 = House of Trebius Valens, Second style decoration in a camera opening off the atrium

Figure 57 = House of Trebius Valens, Atrium

Figure 58 = House of Trebius Valens, Tablinum with Third Style decoration

Figure 59 = House of Trebius Valens, Peristyle

Figure 60 = House of Trebius Valens, Garden triclinium

Figure 61 = Houses of the Vedii, Atrium on the Via Stabiana

Figure 62 = Houses of the Vedii, Atrium on the Vicolo del Lupanare

Figure 63 = Houses of the Vedii, Lower House, Fourth Style Exedra

Figure 64 = Houses of the Vedii, Lower House, Fourth Style Exedra

Figure 65 = Houses of the Vedii, Lower House, Fourth Style Exedra, Mythological Panel "Apollo and Neptune building the walls of Troy

Figure 66 = Houses of the Vedii, Lower House, Fourth Style Exedra, Reconstruction in Pasquale D'Amelio, Dipinti Murali di Pompei. w/ 20 lithographic plates. Naples 1888.

Figure 67 = Houses of the Vedii, Lower House, Third Style decoration, Reconstruction in Pasquale D'Amelio, Dipinti Murali di Pompei. w/ 20 lithographic plates. Naples 1888.

Figure 68 = Houses of the Vedii, Lower House, Mythological Panel painting illustrating Vergil's Aeneid, now in the National Archeological Museum, Naples

Figure 69 = House of L. Ceius Secundus, Facade

Figure 70 = House of L. Ceius Secondus, Atrium

Figure 71 = House of L. Ceius Secondus, Third Style camera off atrium

Figure 72 = House of L. Ceius Secondus, Third Style camera off atrium

Figure 73 = House of L. Ceius Secondus, Fourth Style decoration in viridarium, amphitheater hunt scene

Figure 74 = House of L. Ceius Secondus, Atrium, staircase with opus craticum wall.

Eleanor Winsor Leach
Department of Classical Studies at Indiana
University, Bloomington


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Comments to: Dr. Michael Fuller-mfuller@artsci.wustl.edu