Ankara is the Turkish name for the modern capital city of Turkey. The citadel of the city has traces of several civilizations extending back to the Iron Age.


View of Ankara citadel taken in 1975 by the late Professor Harold Mare (Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis).


One of gates to the Medieval citadel of Ankara.


Sultan Alaaddin Keykubad I Mosque, AD 1178, inside the citadel of Ankara.


Sultan Alaaddin Keykubad I Mosque inside the citadel of Ankara.


View of the keep within the citadel of Ankara. Note the snow in the mountains.


Professor Neathery Fuller on the ramparts of the keep within the citadel of Ankara.


Cross above an arrowshot in the rampart walls of the citadel.


Inside of an arrowshot in the rampart walls of the citadel.


Latin inscription reused in the citadel rampart walls. Mitchell and French (2012:179 - 181) note that this fragment is built into the Zindan Kule (Turkish, dungeon tower) of the Byzanine wall south of the Demir Kapi-gate. Mitchell and French read the text as AXIUS LEG. PRO PR. FELIALIS and translate it as "Axius legate with the rank of praetor, fetial priest." The inscription was certainly part of an imperial monument dedicated to an emperor and dated between AD 20 and 40.


Greek inscription reused in the citadel rampart walls. Mitchell and French (2012:296 - 297) identify it as a limestone or marble statue base that was chipped and trimmed to fit into Tower 23 (the Zindan Kule). Mitchell and French date the inscription to the first half of the second century AD and translate the inscription as: "To Good Fortune! - rotas son of Diodoros, having been astynomos and phylarch generously and honourable, honoured in assemblies by the council and the people with statues and other honours; the eighth tribe Claudia Athenaia set up the statue from its own funds on account of his honour and his good will towards it, under the supervision of Claudius Zosimus, the site having been donated by the council."


Greek gravestone reused in the citadel rampart walls. Mitchell and French (2012:462 - 463) date to the inscription to the later half of the second century AD and translate the inscription as "Marcus, (son) of Pyrrhos, for Tekousa, his -- wife, in memory."
Mitchell, Stephen and David French
2012 The Greek and Latin Inscriptions of Ankara (Ancyra), Volume 1. Verlag C. H. Beck, Munich.
Webpage constructed in 10 April 2012 by Professors Michael Fuller and Neathery Fuller,
St. Louis Community College
Photographs taken in March 2012 while participating in a study abroad fellowship hosted by Ohio State University and the Niagara Foundation.