Apple Mound 23BO5

The Apple Mound Site (23BO5) was excavated by archaeologists from the University of Missouri at Columbia and published by Brewton Berry et al. in the Missouri Archaeologist 4(3):27-35. The fieldwork was conducted between 1935 and 1938. The mound was situated on the edge of an apple orchard.



Colorized top plan showing the vault walls (gray) and interior (light brown). Burial 4 was found in the mound fill below the floor of the vault. The profile drawing for graves 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 suggests that they are intrusive burials into the mound after the central vault had been closed.




Two colorized profiles showing the vault stones (in red) and intrusive graves.




Line drawings of artifacts from the Apple Mound (23BO5) published in Berry et al. (1938). Bone tool 1 is a bone beamer used in the tanning of hides. Artifact 2 is a mussel shell modified into a spoon. Artifact 3 is a bone bead. Antler tools 4, 5 and 7 are billets that are typical tools of a flintknapper. Bone tool 6 was interpreted by Prof. Chapman (1980: Figure 4-20q) as an arrow-shaft wrench. Stone tool 8 is a groundstone celt with a shattered bit edge. Stone tools 10 and 13 were identified as Steuben Expanded Stemmed points by Prof. Chapman (1980: Figure 4-20e and f); he identified stone tool 12 as a Rice Side Notched point. Small arrowpoint 14 was identified by Professor Chapman (1980: Figure 4-20h) as a Scallorn point.



Line drawings by Eleanor Chapman of artifacts from the Apple Mound (23BO5) published by Chapman (1980: Figure 4-20).
Left, grounstone celt with a shattered bit. Center and Right, Steuben Expanded Stemmed points.



Line drawings by Eleanor Chapman of artifacts from the Apple Mound (23BO5) published by Chapman (1980: Figure 4-20).
Left, Rice Side Notched point. Right, Scallorn arrowpoint.







Line drawings by Eleanor Chapman of artifacts from the Apple Mound (23BO5) published by Chapman (1980: Figure 4-20).
Top, Arrow Wrench out of bone. Middle, small antler billet. Bottom, large antler billet.



The artifacts and architecture of the mound indicate that it was definitely used during the Late Woodland Period; its origins may extend as far back as the Late Archaic based upon some of the discoveries. The oval shaped mound measured 60 ft by 45 ft and 10 ft in height. It was undisturbed by looters except for one small pit along its west side.

A stone vault, situated near the surface of the mound using local slabs of limestone. The walls of the vault formed a rectangle measuring 17 x 14 ft. and stood to a height of 2 ft. The vault walls ranged between 3 and 3.5 ft. in thickness. Between ten and twelve individuals had been buried inside the stone vault. Five of the burials were well articulated, primary burials. One burial in the vault was semi-flexed. Two bundle burials were reported as consisting of long bones, a skull, and a mass of smaller bones. The remaining burials were both cremations and scattered burials. The cremated remains of two individuals were found under the extended burials.

Burial 6 was significant because several pieces of hematite were discovered in the left hand of the burial while a bone tool (no. 6) was found near his left leg. Burial 9 was discovered with a split bone awl (nos. 1 and 2) near the skull and a broken projectile point/knife near the left arm (no. 9).



Digital scans of black-and-white photographs from Apple Mound (23BO5) published by Berry et al. (1938).
Left, rocks associated with main vault, Topsoil still covers vault. Right, east side of main vault.



Digital scans of black-and-white photographs from Apple Mound (23BO5) published by Berry et al. (1938).
Left, skull inside vault. Rocks in foreground form part of floor. Right, Extended burial (no. 9) inside vault.



Digital scans of black-and-white photographs from Apple Mound (23BO5) published by Berry et al. (1938).
Left, extended burial lying on right side. Bundle burial to right, antler artifacts to left on rock. Right, north wall of main vault; feature 3 to right, featgure 5 to left front.



Digital scans of black-and-white photographs from Apple Mound (23BO5) published by Berry et al. (1938).
Left, feature 3. Right, burial feature 4.


Digital scans of black-and-white photographs from Apple Mound (23BO5) published by Berry et al. (1938).
Left, vault of feature no. 5. Right, burials of feature no. 5.



Digital scans of black-and-white photographs from Apple Mound (23BO5) published by Berry et al. (1938).
Left, feature 6. Right, feature 7, rocks above are part of main vault.


Carl H. Chapman (left), Professor Jesse Wrench (center), and James L. Lowe (right) during the summer of 1938. From the cover of the Missouri Archaeological Society Quarterly (1988).



Berry, Brewton, Jessee E. Wrench, Carl Chapman, and Wilber Seitz
1938 Archaeological Investigations in Boone County, Missouri. Missouri Archaeologist volume 4, number 3.

Chapman, Carl H.
1980 The Archaeology of Missouri, II. University of Missouri, Columbia.

Missouri Archaeological Society
1988 Missouri Archaeological Society Quarterly. 5(2):Cover.


Webpage constructed 23 February 2007

Webpage updated 4 October 2016