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27 June 2004


Neathery and Michael Fuller,



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Crusader Era Sites - Middle East



  • 1110 King Baldwin I of Jerusalem with aid of Count Bertrand of Tripoli capture Beirut.

  • 1100s Gautier Brisebaree and Guy Brisebarre rule the town.

  • 1157 Severe earthquake causes widespread destruction in Beirut.

  • 1183 Saladin attacks Beirut.

  • 1187 Ayyubids capture Beirut in the conquests after the Horns of Hattin battle. Sanjag el Sultan is given charge of the castle while Saif ed-din Ali ibn Ahmed of Mashtoob governs the city. The citadel is dismantled by the Ayyubids.

  • 1197 Reconquered by Crusaders and King Aimery (of Jerusalem) grants it as a fief to his brother-in-law, John I of Ibelin. He is called the Old Lord of Beirut.

  • 1236 to 1247 Balian, son of John I, succeeds his father.

  • 1247 to 1264 John II, grandson of John I, rules Beirut.

  • 1264 to 1282 Isabelle, daughter of John II rules Beirut.

  • 1282 to 1291 Eschiva, daughter of John II rules Beirut.

    31 July 1291 Crusaders in Beirut surrender to the Mamluks.

Traces of Medieval buildings incorporated into later Ottoman Period structures.

Medieval Mosque being restored.

Sana Aboul Hosn supervising archaeological rescue work in downtown Beirut.

Heavy equipment removing soil disturbed by the Civil War to reach undisturbed layers in downtown Beirut.

Restoration of this church discovered Byzantine church foundations under the current structure.

Crusader style capitol found in restoration of the church.

Fragments of marble decoration from the Roman era.

Inscribed Roman column/Milestone?.

Fragments of broken marble chancels from Byzantine or Crusader churches.

Rescue excavations during 2004 with Roman ruins in foreground and restored church in background.

Roman ruins.

Roman ruins.

Roman era Corinthian capitals from rescues excavations.

Corniche of Beirut.


Ghiath and large Nargela (Arabic, waterpipes).

Natural pillars in the sea off the shore of the Corniche.


GPS DATA for Beirut

1. Near the Medieval looking ruins in the downtown area
North 33 degrees 54.002' and East 35 degrees 30.451'
Approximate elevation of 14 meters above sea level.

2. Northeast edge of rescue excavation area
North 33 degrees 53.768' and East 35 degrees 30.370'
Approximate elevation of 30 meters above sea level.

3. Restored Roman columns in rescue excavation area
North 33 degrees 53.708' and East 35 degrees 30.262'
Approximate elevation of 46 meters above sea level.