Image from Muendel (1981:Figure 11) from Field C, Area 23, locus 29, 1978 field season. Damage to the teeth and the cracked forehead are not present in the in situ photographs.
Skull from Field C, Area 23, locus 29, 1978 field season. Dr. Melissa Muendel studied this the skull from this burial as part of her MA thesis at Drew University. This was case 232 - adult male in type 1 grave (cist with capping stones) that was laid out in the Christian custom (head to west with gave to the East). The field notes from 1978 indicate that the burial was found at an elevation of 7.53 meters above sea level; burial dimensions are recorded as 1.66 meters (5'5") by 0.34 meters (1'1"). Muendel classified this burial as Phase 4 (AD 1200 - 1299) and was 30 to 35 years old at time of death. Muendel did not describe the post cranial remains which suggests that they were brought to the USA for study.
Muendel recorded the following measurements on the skull in 1981:
CRANIAL index = 80.66 = slightly broad or round headed
TOTAL FACIAL INDEX = 86.6 = average or medium face
UPPER FACIAL INDEX = 51.85 = average or medium face
NASAL INDEX = 53.92 = average or medium width nose
ORBITAL INDEX = 84.6 = average or medium eye orbits
MAXILLO-ALVEOLAR INDEX = 112.8 = palate is average or medium
HEIGHT OF MANDIBULAR SYMPHYSIS = 2.6 cm
HEIGHT OF ASCENDING RAMUS = 6.5 cm
MINIMUM BREADTH OF ASCENDING RAMUS = 3.30 cm
BICONDYLAR BREADTH = 12.8 cm
WORMIAN = 5 (FRAGMENTS OR WHOLE SKULL)
PARIETAL FORMINA = Bone present but no formina
Cusp pattern of 1st molar maxillary = 3+
Cusp pattern of 2nd molar mandible = 4+, Mandible tooth loss with healing
Maxillary tooth loss with healing
Calculus presence = moderate
Evidence of resorption = considerable
Dental wear = moderate
No evidence of abcesses on either mandible or maxilla
Caries on mandible occlusal
No caries on the maxilla
MEL observed Linear Enamel Hypoplasia score of 3 and tooth wear ranging from 2 (Left M-3) to 5 (Left M-1 and Left M-2). Dental calculus is present.
Copy of skull 23029 prepared by 3D printing for facial reconstruction. Computer file work done by Andrew Stapleton. Laser scan by John Schmitt, Interim Manager of the Center for Visual Technology at St. Louis Community College - Meramec. Facial reconstrution is the excellent work of Jennifer Clark, a bioarchaeologist with extensive experience in facial reconstruction.
Skull from locus 22075, 1978 field season. Dr. Melissa Muendel studied this the skull from this burial as part of her MA thesis at Drew University. This was case 156 - adult male age 40 to 45 years old in type 1 grave (cist with capping stones) that was laid out in the Christian custom (head to west with gave to the East). Muendel classified this burial as Phase 2 (AD 1500 - 1899). Muendel recorded measurements for the femur and humerus which indicates that some of the post cranial remains were brought to the USA. MEL concluded the individual was "probably" a female based upon the pelvis and sacrum and estimated the age of the indivdual between 40 and 45 based upon the pelvis morphology.
Muendel recorded the following measurements in 1981:
Femoral head diameter = 3.5 cm
Platymeric index = 86.26
Side identification for platymeric index = Right
Platycnemic Index = 49.02
Side identification for platycemic index = Right
CRANIAL index = 69.2 = narrow or long headed
TOTAL FACIAL INDEX = 95.00 =
UPPER FACIAL INDEX = 62.00 =
NASAL INDEX = 34.65 = narrow nasal aperture
ORBITAL INDEX = 81.5 = with orbits
SACRAL INDEX = 99.99
ISCHIU-PUBI INDEX= 91.00
MAXILLO-ALVEOLAR INDEX = 121.1 = broad palate
HEIGHT OF MANDIBULAR SYMPHYSIS = 2.4
HEIGHT OF ASCENDING RAMUS = 1.61
SEPTAL APERTURE = Large
NOM3 = 4
CPM2UP = 2
CPM2D = 4
CPM3D = 4
MANLOOSE = 1
MAXLOOSE = 1
MANHEAL = 2
MAXHEAL = 2
CALCULUS = 1
RESORB = 3
WEAR = 2
ABCESS = 5
CARIESD = 5
CARIESU = 3
HUMERUS = 33.4 CM
RADIUS = 27.0 CM
ULNA = 29.6 CM
FIBULA = 40.5 CM
CC = 2
ALVDEST = 1
CARIES = 4
CPMAX = 1
CPMAN = 3
POSTEETH = 1
AMLOSS = 2
The length of the Humerus and Radius can be used to estimate height:
Humerus: 2.89 x 33.4 + 78.10 +/- 4.57 = 170.05 to 179.19 cm = 5'7" to 5'11"
Radius: 3.79 x 27.0 + 79.42 +/- 4.66 = 181.75 cm. = 177.09 to 186.41 cm. = 5'10" to 6'1".
Pelvis from locus 22075, 1978 field season.
Muendel recorded the following measurements in 1981:
NASAL = 35.71 = narrow nasal aperture
ORBITAL = 73.3 = wide orbit
MANSYMPH = 1.6
RAMUSB = 1.90
WORMIAN = 5
PARIETAL = 2
SEPTAL = 4
NOM3 = 4
CPM2UP = 4
CPM1D = 1
CPM2D = 4
MANLOOSE = 1
MAXLOOSE = 1
ABCESS = 5
CARIESD = 5
LIPPING = 2
CLAVICLE = 16.3
CC = 2
ALVDEST = 1
CARIES = 5
CPMAX = 1
CPMAN = 2
POSTEETH = 1
AMLOSS = 1
Skull and post-cranial remains for the burial in locus 22039 excavated during the 1978 field season at Caesarea Maritima. Dr. Melissa Muendel included this the skull, case 129, in her MA thesis at Drew University (Muendel 1981:Figure 32). This individual was an adult female aged over 50 years and buried in a type 1 grave (cist with capping stones). Muendel classified this burial as Phase 2 (AD 1500 - 1899). Muendel recorded measurements for the femur and humerus which indicates that the manidble and some of the post cranial remains were brought to the USA and she calculated a stature for this woman as 159 cm (5'3"). Muendel noted the bowed structure of both femurs.
MEL examined the pelvis of this individual and identified the sex as female and estimated the age as 45 to 50; she noted that the very light weight of the mandible might reflect osteoporosis. MEL noted that the single surviving tooth in the mandible had a score of 2 for linear enamel hypoplasia.
Muendel recorded the following measurements in 1981:
FEMUR LENGTH= 41.3 cm
FEMUR HEAD DIAMETER= 2.89 cm
PLATYMERIC INDEX = 80.0
PLATYMERIC INDEX SIDE = RRIGHT
TIBIA LENGTH = 34.80 cm
PLATYCNEMIC INDEX = 44.81
PLATYCNEMIC SIDE = Left
CRANIAL index = 94.80 = Very Broad headed
TOTAL FACIAL INDEX = 0.00
UPPER FACIAL INDEX = 51.18 =
NASAL INDEX = 45.00 = narrow nasal aperture
ORBITAL INDEX = 76.3 = wide orbits
ISH = 99.99
MAXILLO-ALVEOLAR INDEX = 103.8 = narrow palate
HEIGHT OF MANDIBULAR SYMPHYSIS = 2.75
HEIGHT OF ASCENDING RAMUS = 4.8
RAMUSB = 3.10 CM
BICONDB = 12.8
WORMIAN = 1
PARIETAL = 1
ABCESS = 2
CARIESD = 3
PORITIC = 1
FEMPHY = 41.0
HUMERUS = 28.6 cm
RADIUS = 22.6 cm
POSTEETH = 2
AMLOSS = 1
The length of the Femur, Humerus and Radius can be used to estimate height:
Femur: 2.47 x 41.3 + 54.10 +/- 3.72 = 152.39 to 159.83 cm = 5'0" to 5'3"
Humerus: 3.36 x 28.6 + 57.97 +/- 4.45 = 149.62 to 158.52 cm = 4'11" to 5'2"
Radius: 4.74 x 22.6 + 54.93 +/- 4.24 = 157.81 to 166.29 cm = 5'2" to 5'5"
Skull of an adult female from locus 22147 excavated during the 1978 field season at Caesarea Maritima. Dr. Melissa Muendel included this the skull, case 128, in her MA thesis at Drew University (Muendel 1981:Figure 24); her study was not able to precisely define the skull as either male or female and the skull is most certainly adult but was not placed within a specific decade. This was type 3 grave (earth or pit burial) and Muendel classified this burial as Phase 5 (AD 900 - 1199). No measurements for this skull were included in Muendel's thesis database.
Skull from locus 22101, Muendel (1981:Figure 29) case 177, of a child with porotic hyperostosis on the right parietal (left) and cribra orbitalia inside the eye sockets (right). The date for this burial is placed as phase 2 = AD 1500 - 1899. Age at death based upon the Humerus would suggest the child was approximately 3.5 to 4.5 years old at time of death while the length of the tibia would indicate a child between age 2 and 3. .
Muendel recorded the following measurements in 1981:
FEMUR = 18.6 cm, TIBIA = 15.7 cm, HUMERUS = 13.9 cm, FIBULA = 14.8 cm, AMLOSS = 1
Cranium fragment from locus 9029. Dr. Melissa Muendel studied and report on this skull as case 61 in her thesis. She identified the burial as male and estimated the stature as 173 cm = 5'8". A femur from this burial measures 48.1 cm. MEL examined the pelvis and positively identified his individual as male and she estimated the age between 40 and 45.
Burial in locus 22137. Dr. Melissa Muendel studied and report on this burial as case 205 in her thesis. She noted that the burial belonged to an adult male and reports his stature as 178 cm (5'10").
Steve Wadsworth (personal communication, 18 February 2019) suggests that the hand across the chest is to represent piety and the hand across the stomach is to represent grasping a wooden sword. Another explanation would see a metal sword clasped in the hand across the stomach, but the weapon removed just before placing the soil upon the body.
Burial in locus 22010. A cist burial that contained 2 skulls. Top elevation of the capstones was 11.165 meters above sea level and the bottom elevation was 11.015.
Burial in locus 22011. A empty cist grave. Top elevation of the capstones was 11.665 meters above sea level and the bottom elevation was 11.535.
Burial in locus 22012. Extended burial in a pit of an adult male oriented East-West with face turned Southeast towards Mecca. Stature recorded as 1.70 meters = 5'6". Hands and feet were recorded as missing. Top elevation of 11.245 meters above sea level and bottom elevation of 11.095.
Burial in locus 22013. Fragmentary burial oriented East-West consisting of one arm, foot and fragments of a skull. Top elevation of 11.665 meters above sea level and bottom elevation of 11.415 meters. Associated with this burial was a large piece of iron (Reg. 6.7.5 from bucket C.22.36).
Burial in locus 22014. Notes of random human bones associated with sanda and shells. A disturbed burial. Top elevation of 11.435 meters above sea level and bottom elevation of 11.230 meters
Burial in locus 22015. Extended burial oriented East-West with top elevation of 11.285 meters above sea level and bottom elevation of 11.135 meters.
Burial in locus 22048. A cist (crypt) burial of an adult resting on its back and with rings as associated grave goods. Burial length is given as 1.73 meters (5'5"). A left femur from this burial measures 45.6 cm. MEL noted that the femur is very robust with a significant muscle attachment opposite of the Lessor Tronchanter attachment. A knight?
Burial in locus 22049. A cist (crypt) burial of an adult burial that was preserved only to the knees. The burial was resting on its back with the face turned north (possibly crusader).
Burial in locus 22050. A cist (crypt) burial of a juvenile/sub adult - the burial length is given as 77 cm (4'2"). The burial was placed on its right side as most likely a Muslim burial. Artifacts associated with the burial include a bracelet, an anklet, and strings of glass beads on the left arm and at the waist.
A string of 43 beads found on the left arm of the burial. Two are green-yellow frit and the rest appear to be glass. Diameter ranges from 5 mm to 7 mm. Reg. no. 6.12.1. Photo no. C78-222A-34
Fragment of a glass cup base found in the fill around the burial. Light blue green glass with an internal thread of darker color. Diameter = 5 cm. Associted pottery was Byzntine. Reg. no. 6.12.2. Photo no. C78-218-24.
Collection of seven beads out of amber colored glass found at the waist of the burial. The largest bead measures 2.1 cm in diameter while the other beads measure between 1.4 and 0.9 cm in diameter. Reg. no. 6.12.4. Photo no. C78-222A-33
Glass ring found on the left hand of the burial. Exterior diameter is 1.4 cm and width of the ring is 4 mm. The glass is described as irridescent. Reg. no. 6.12.3. Photo no. C78-218-23.
Iron bracelet found on the right arm of the burial. Diameter = 3.9 cm. Reg. no. 6.12.4. Photo no. C78-215-35
Iron anklet with traces of cloth. Approximately 6 cm in diameter. Reg. no. 6.12.6. Photo no. C78-215:33..
Burial in locus 22065. A semi-flexed burial in a cist burial of a juvenile/sub-adult buried in a semi-flexed posture on its right side. Length is given as 1.16 meters = 3'9". Bracelets were found on the arms and an anklet was found on the right ankle of this burial.
Burial c22065 with associated bracelets and anklet.
Glass bracelet found on the left arm of the burial. Interior diameter is 5.2 cm and the thickness of the glass is 1.1 cm. The matrix of the glass is green and it has an inlay of yellow. Reg. no. 6.13.6. Photo no. C78-222A-18.
Set of two bronze braceletes found on the right arm of the burial. Maximum interior width is 4.6 and 4.8 cm. Reg. no. 6.13.5. Photo no. C78-222A-21.
Set of two bronze bracelets found on the right arm of the burial. Maximum interior width of 4.7 and 5.2 cm. The larger bracelet is rounded while the smaller bracelet has three raised surfaces (two elliptical and one rectangular). Reg. no. 6. 13.4. Photo no. C78-222A-24
An iron bracelet found on the left arm of the burial. Inner diameter measures 5.5 cm. Reg. no. 6.13.7. Photo no. C78-222A-22.
Bronze bracelet with asssociated cloth. Inner diameter ranges from 4.3 to 5.5 cm. Reg. no. 6.13.9. Photo no. C78-222A-17.
Bronze anklet fond on the right ankle of the burial. Diameter ranges from 7.4 to 7.8 cm. Reg. no. 6.13.3. Photo no. C78-222A-23 and C78-14-30A.
Burial in locus 22068. An extended burial in a pit that was missing its feet and damage to half of the skull. Length is recorded as 1.9 meters = 6'3"? The condition of the burial is listed as poor.
Burial in locus 22071. An extended burial on its right side that was incomplete and poorly preserved. Length is recorded as both 1.2 and 1.3 meters = 3'11" to 4'2". Height would suggest a juvenile.
Burial in locus 22075. An extended burial of an adult in a cist on its right side that was in good preservation. Length recorded as 1.74 meters = 5'8".
Burial in locus 22101. An extended burial of a juvenile in a cist on its right side in fair condition. Length recorded as .82 meters = 3'6". MEL examined the bones from this burial and characterized them as a juvenile with evidence (score of 3) for cribra orbitalia in the right orbit. She also noted evidence of porotic hyperostosis on the left parietal (score = 1) and the right parietal; another pathology observed was an ectocranial lesion on the right temporal squama and part of the mastoid process.
Burial in locus 22107. A semi-flexed burial in a pit placed on its right side and facing SE. Length is recorded as 1.3 meters = 4'3".
Burial in locus 22109. A semi-flexed burial in a pit placed on its right side and facing SE. Length is recorded as 1.8 meters = 5'11". The sacrum of this individual as examined by MEL; she identified the individual as an adult with a complete fusion of all the elements.
Burial in locus 22110. A semi-flexed burial in a pit on its right side and facing SE. Length is recorded as 1.5 meters = 4'11".
Burial in locus 22136. Crusader burial made in a deposit of sand and shell. Field notes report that random, disarticulated poorly preserved burials were found in this area from which no information could be gathered. Field reports labelled it as Burial - 1.
Burial in locus 22137. An extended burial in a pit with right hand on stomach and left hand on chest and face turned north. Skull was incomplete (injured?). Body oriented East-West with face turned to the North. Identified as Crusader. Length is recorded as 1.78 m = 5'10". Top elevation of 10.855 meters above sea level and bogtom elevation of 10.715 meters. Photo log C78-10, frames 29 through 31.
Burial in locus 22138. An extended burial oriented E-W in a cyst with cross on chest and face turned to North. The lower leg and feet extend into the South Bulk. Adult burial in poor preservation.
Small rounded cross measures 3.1 x 2.1 cm made of ceramic of lithic material. A hole through one arm of the cross allowed for its use as a pendent. Photo no. C-78-15-2A
Burial in locus 22139. An extended burial in a cyst with skull and feet missing. Photograph C78.11.3. Top elevation 10.703 meters above sea level and base 10.665 meters. Left hand on chest and right hand over abdomin. Identified as Crusader. Length of the burial is cist is 1.52 meters = 5'0".
Burial is locus 22140. An extended burial in a cyst with lower legs and feet missing. E-W orientation with face turned Northeast. Preservation is poor. Left hand over chest and right hand over abdomen. 3 teeth still connected on mandible. Lower leg and feet missing. Identified as Crusader. Capstones and most side stones robbed. Brown soil (10YR5/3) from decomposition.
Burial in locus 22141. An extended burial in a cyst with lower legs and feet missing. Adult burial in poor preservation. Left hand over chest and right hand over abdomen. Field reports labelled it as burial 2.
Burial in locus 22142. A extendd burial in a cyst of an adult female. Body in E-W orientation and hands folded over the chest. Possible ancient fracture of the left forearm. Lower legs and feet missing. Top elevation 10.664 above sea level and bottom 10.658 meters.
Burial in locus 22143. An extended buial in a cyst of an sub-adult to adult based upon grave dimensions of 1.24 meters = 4'0". Skull and legs are missing. Identified as Crusader. Top elevation 10.615 above sea level and bottom 10.515 meters. Field reports labelled it as burial 3.
Burial in locus 22144. An extended burial oriented East-West with hands clasped on the chest. Two bronze rings were situated on the 3rd finger. Both the skull and legs are missing. Identified as a Crusader burial.
Two deliciate rings of fine bronze associated with the finger bone of the burial in locus 22144. Diameter is 2.2 cm. Reg. no. 7.6.1. Photo no. C78 21:14A.
Two bronze rings from locus 21026; each ring has a bezel with insets that may be either garnet or glass. The left ring is smaller (2.2 cm diameter) than the right ring (2.4 cm). Reg. no. 6.13.11. Photo no. C78 222A-19.
Burial in locus 22145. Cyst burial of a child based upon the photograph and dimension of the grave (85 cm = 2'9"). Initially classified as Crusader then reclassified as Muslim. Elevation of the top of the cyst was 10.565 meters above sea level and bottom of grave as 10.321.
Burial in locus 22146. Cyst burial of a child based upon the grave dimension (68 cm = 2'2"). Body was placed on its right side and face towards SE (Mecca). Classified as a Muslim burial.
Burial in locus 22147. Random bones and five or more skulls. A small cross out of a soft lithic material (most likely steatite) was found amongst the bones; the cross was drilled through one arm so it could be suspended as a pendant. It is very likely that this features was a mass grave of men who had died upon a battlefield - possibly outside the walls of the city. Elevation of 10.390 to 10.399 meters above sea level.
Burials in locus 22148. Scattered bones thought to be Muslim. Found one iron nail that was more likely a projectile point.
Burials in locus 22150. Articulated and random bones plus a group of two skulls.
Burial in locus 22154. A semi-flexed burial on its right side placed inside of cyst. Preservation is fair. An arrowhead was found near the mid-section of the burial.
Iron arrowhead measures 6.75 cm in length. Photo no. C78.33:20A.
Burial in locus 22162. Extended burial in a cyst with legs and feet extending into the East baulk. Male aged 25 to 26. Body turned on its right side and hands over the pelvic area. Body oriented E-W with face turned to the SE.
Silver ring from Locus 28014 with raised bezel found in association with a burial. Associated pottery included Byzantine, Late Byzantine and Early Islamic (Umayyad) sherds. Diameter approximately 1.4 cm.
Gold ring from Locus 28014 missing the stone from the bezel. Finely worked ring with two lines on either side of the setting. Diameter 1.3 cm and thickness of ring is 2 mm. Associated with Byzantine, Late Byzantine and Early Islamic (Umayyad) pottery.
C72, Field C, Area 2 burials
Locus 2201, Moneta Regis Crusader Coin, 12th century AD. Rimsherd to a thin walled, blue-green glass cup or lamp.
Locus 2204, Three pieces of pewter, one was possibly the arm of a cross. Voided from registry. Also an crossbow bolt or lance point, bent. Voided. Rim of a glass cup or lamp. Voided. Clinched iron nail (6.5 cm in length). Voided.
Glass rimsherd. Scale is 2 cm.
Iron projectile point, bent, with corrosion. Estimated Length = 7 cm, stem length = 3.7 cm and stem width = 8 mm. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2205, Two pieces of corroded iron found on threshold 2205. Fragments of weapons (Lance and sword)
Locus 2207, Burials 2 and 3. Burial with Early Arab (Umayyad sherds) associated with a small glass oval ring/necklace inset of black speckled glass. Voided from registry. Also associated with a bronze square pen (brooch or shroud closer).
Bronze pen associated with a burial; possibly to close a shroud? Estimated length = 2.3 cm and width = 3 mm. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2208, 2 to 3 cm. destruction layer (Byz) with coin (5/23) upon tessarae floor 2210. Destruction layer 2215 over mosaic floor. Middle Byzantine and Late Byzantine sherds.
Locus 2210 white tessarae floor (continued as 2218 and 2227). This was roughly laid upon a burnt layer.
Locus 2211 header-stretcher wall in Northwest quarter with plaster on inner (East) face
Locus 2214, coin found (5/24) in associated with burial in this fill that is mainly Middle Byzantine and Late Byzantine. Base and stem of a footed glass cup. Large (5.5 cm) clinkched nail. Fragment of worked stone that might have been part of a reliquary. Decoration includes three ridges and several circles with traces of paint in the center of the circles.
3.5 cm thick stone fragment with decoration. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2215, Broken iron projectile point (like a Bobkin) with an oxidized material attached to the shaft.
Iron projectile point with corrosion. Estimated length = 4 cm and stem = 2 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2216, mosaic (from inscription incomplete) under 2215.
Locus 2217, another destruction layer under the mosaic floor of 2216. Large iron nail found resting on the mosaic floor (2218).
Locus 2220, burial found in locus 2214. Classified as burial no. 5.
Locus 2221, burial found in locus 2214. Classified as burial no. 6.
Locus 2225, three iron fragments field identified as possible nails but sketched more as broken projectile points. Voided.
Three iron projectile points. Estimate lengths = 8 cm, 9 cm and 5.5 cm. Estimated stem widths = 2.5 cm, 2.5 cm, and 2 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2226, Greek inscription of a limestone fragment found in the rubble inside Room V of the Byzantine Revenue Office room V. The fragment was created during the 4th to mid 6th century. Text relates to laws and violations. Locus 2227, mosaic under burnt level; circular design with letters within
Locus C2330 projectile point. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2231, Burials 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22.
Crusader burials in Locus 2231.
Burials 13, 14, 15, and 16 are presented by four skulls and two discrete bundles of bones. These are battle field remains of unknown soldiers. Bundle burial in southwest quarter of the square with associated fragment of a bronze Fleur de Lys. Registered.
Burials 15 and 16. Three skulls as well as extended burials (burials 13 to 18) and two bundles of long bones can be explained as a beheaded Crusaders (specifically Templaers) - the skulls retrieved from the battlefield and buried close to the extended burials.
Burials 15 and 16 includes an isolated skull that can be explained as a beheaded Crusader skull retrieved from a battlefield and buried close to the extended burials.
Burial 17 has hands clasped over the heart; part of his head extends into the bulk. Burial 17 shows a fractured mandible and facial trauma.
Burial 18 has right hand over the heart and left hand at the waiste; legs are missing. Burials 19, 20, 21, and 22 are buried in an long grave trench and are very fragmentary.
2.5 cm. thick fragment of work stone. Possibly from a broken reliquary. Scale is 2 cm.
Fragment of bronze metal (similar to a pilgrim's badge) in the form of a Fluer de Lys. Estimated length = 1.7 cm. Found amidst the human bones in the NW quarter of the excavation square. Scale is 2 cm.
Smooth triangular stone of dark igneous material. Found directly associated with the burials. A pestle? Scale is 2 cm.
Registered also was a fragment of red clay brick that was not local.
Iron projectile point from locus C2334, scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2235, base and midsection of an iron projectile point. Voided.
Locus 2236, broken half of a iron projectile point. Voided.
Locus 2240, Burial 26 in open ended rectangular wall in SE quarter of square. Plaster on inner face.
Locus 2241, burial 27, Plaster topped surface related to the rectangular walls. Byzantine, Late Byzantine and Early Arab (Umayyad) pottery.
Locus C2240 to 2245
Locus 2243, Burials 26, 27, 28, and 29.
Iron projectile point from locus 2243, bent. Estimated length = 7 cm and stem = 3 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2246, Windblown sandy soil with fallen building stone against wall Locus 2211. Late Byzantine and Early Arab (Umayyad) pottery. Iron agricultural tool fragment or sword hilt. Glass goblet stem. Voided.
Glass lamp with suspension loop from locus 2247.
Broken iron projectile point from locus 2248. Estimated length = 6 cm and stem = 2 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2251, stem of an iron projectile point. Voided.
Locus 2254, Burials 23, 24, and 25.
Locus 2256, Coin associated with burial
Locus 2258, Destruction layer, Late Byzantine
Locus 2259, coin in burial. Arab and Early Arab pottery
Locus 2265, tabun within the destruction layer, Byzantine
Locus 2268, broken roof tiles used to make floor of oven
locus 2281, cross associated with burial no. 45; estimated length = 4.5 cm and width = 2.5 cm. The cross was found lying just above the ribs of the burial. It is splayed at the bottom. Preserved in parafin. A thin iron pin (for a shroud?) was found in the same locus.
Locus C2281 burial.
Locus 2282, Fragment of iron projectile point with adherring corrosion.
Locus 2284, lateral wall runing East-West.
Locus 2285, destruction layer below the sherd layer. Late Byzantine sherds.
Iron projectile point found in locus 2285; estimated length = 10 cm and stem = 2.5 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2288, Thick, compacted destruction layer over tessarated floor. Late Byzantine sherds.
Locus C2291 roof tiles used to define arc of an oven.
Locus 2294, sandy soil directly above wall 2283. Middle Byzantine, Late Byzantine and possible Byzantine/Arab (Umayyad) pottery.
Locus 2297, Two bent iron projectile points found near skeleton burial #48.
Iron projectile point from Locus C2297. Estimated length = 14 cm and stem length = 6 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Iron projectile point fragment, bent. Estimated length = 6.5 cm and stem = 2.5 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2299, Pit feature if SE quadrant that was stone lined around the mouth and burnt in the bottom. A simple hearth. Byzantine and Early Arab pottery including the note of a glaze ware sherd. Plantings!
Locus 23002, small bronze cross with a bail. Found in association with Roman, Byzantine and Islamic pottery. Length = 2.9 and width = 1.8 cm. Reg. no. 6.11.2. Photo no. C78-212-3 and C8-14-14A. Drawing no. C78-D20.
Locus 2305, 2 pit features agains the south balk. One pit is 19 x 20 cm and the other was 48 x 52 cm. Byzantine/Early Arab pottery sherds associated with pebbles, stones and a few shells. Plantings!
Locus 2308, Oven under the fieldstone hearth. Bone, marble fragments, Byzantine and Early Arab pottery sherds.
Locus 2310, Burial 57. Two bent iron projectile points with adhering corrosion.
Bent iron projectile point with corrosion from locus 2310. Estimate length = 5 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2311, Four bent iron projectile points with adhering corrosion.
Bent iron projectile point from locus 2311. Estimated length = 6 cm and stem = 2.5 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Bent iron projectile point from locus 2311. Estimated length = 7 cm and stem = 3 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Broken iron projectile point from locus 2313. Estimated legnth = 9.5 cm and stem = 4 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2318, Burial 57 had a carnelian ring inset engraved with a Kufic script. Allah will come when we [pray] to him. Considered Kufic during the field reading. Registered. Four bent projectile points, corroded together. .
One of four bent iron projectile point with corrosion from locus 2318. Estimated length = 5.5 cm and stem length = 2 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Engrave carnelian sealstone found associated with burial 57 in locus 2318. The field reading of the Kufic inscripion suggests an Abbasid date. The text may translate as "Allah will come when we --- to Him." Estimated size 1.8 x 1.5 cm. Scale is 2 cm.
Locus 2320, corroded iron projectile point.
Locus 2324, Pit feature cut through a Byzantine floor inside wall 2324. The fill contained fine black clay soil, pebbles, no shells roof tiles, plaster, a few tesserae, fragments of painted (red) plasters, AND ROOT FILAMENTS!!! Tree Plantings!!!
Locus 2328, Pit feature with sandy soil, pebbles, marble frags, sherds, turtle shell, eggshell and small animal bones. Lunch scraps in a pit for Tree Plantings! Glass neck to a flaring wine carafe. Registered. Spindle whorl/loom weight from stone.
Locus 2329, Base of an iron spearpoint. Found in destruction level. Voided.
Locus 2330, Base of an iron spearpoint. Voided. Locus 2334, Iron arrowpoint. Voided. Locus 2335, Cyst burial that included Early Arab pottery sherds. Bent iron projectile point.
Locus 2336, Robber trench above a wall. Late Byzantine sherds.
Locus 2338, Ashlar masonry wall founded on levelling course of thin, flat stones. Beneath that was a course of large irregular stones. Sandy fill above foundation trench (2339) had Late Roman sherds.
Burial with face covered by a cranium fragment, Area 25, 1980.
Burial with face covered by a cranium fragment, Area 25, 1980. This image was published in the 1980 summary report published by Bull et al 1986: Figure 17, 43.
Burial with face uncovered in Area 25, 1980.
Burial with severe facial trauma, Area 25.
Small bronze pendent found in association with cyst burial BC-4. Found in association with Byzantine pottery sherds. Length = 13 mm and width = 7 cmm. Reg. no. 6.4.2. Photo no. C80 - 203:7.
Burial in Area 26, burial 17, 1980 field season.
Burial in Area 26, burial 19, 1980 field season.
Pencil top plan showing three burials (23025 23026 and 23030) in Field C, Area 23, 1980 field season. Map of Late Islamic/Crusader burials in Field C, Area 23, 1980 field season. Photograph of burials in
Field C, Area 26, 1980 field season. Photograph of burials in
Field C, Area 26, 1980 field season. Photograph of burial 52 in
Field C, Area 26, 1980 field season. This is the burial that was described as with plate mail. A better description is that the burial had been wrapped in an arming jacket with metal plates; it is neither mail nor plate armor.
Pencil top plan showing three burials (23025 23026 and 23030) in Field C, Area 23, 1980 field season.
Map of Late Islamic/Crusader burials in Field C, Area 23, 1980 field season.
Photograph of burials in Field C, Area 26, 1980 field season.
Photograph of burials in Field C, Area 26, 1980 field season.
Photograph of burial 52 in Field C, Area 26, 1980 field season. This is the burial that was described as with plate mail. A better description is that the burial had been wrapped in an arming jacket with metal plates; it is neither mail nor plate armor.
Closeup photograph of the fragment of armor associated with the burial 52 in Field C26, nicknamed Joan of Caesarea. This images was originally published by Bull et al 1986:Figure 16, 43. The presence of a woman among burials of "fighting" men is not unexpected. Women who served as "associate sisters" were referred to by the term Consoeur (Ralls 2007:58, 227).
Field C25, burials 36, 37, and 38 during the 1980 field season.
Umayyad walls rebuilt against a Byzantine wall in Fild C during the 1980 field season.
Field C25, burial 10 during the 1980 field season.
Field C26, burial 17 during the 1980 field season.
Field C25, burial 13 during the 1980 field season.
Field C26 at the removal of the burials at the end of the 1980 field season.
Byzantine mosaics in Field C26 after the removal of burials.
1974 coin field reads:
Locus 5001, bucket 0, Islamic
Locus 5002, bucket 4, French feudal Crusader
Locus 5004, bucket 5, English coin Crusader
Locus 5004, bucket 0, John de Brienne Crusader
Locus 5032, bucket 14, Umayyad
Locus 5042, bucket 21, Abbasid
Locus 5059, bucket 34, Umayyad
Locus 6065, bucket 119, Umayyad
Locus 8102, bucket 151, Fatamid
Melissa Muendel (1978 - "Proposal to the Joint Expedition to Caesarea Maritima) lamented that the excavation records from 1972 to 1978 recorded a minimum of 429 burials. There was some limited physical anthropology caried out on 18 burials during the 1976 field season. Muendel was in the field during 1978 to examine burials and carry out partial analysis.
The 1978 field summary report notes that the Byzantine mosaic floors in Area 21 were composed of 9 shades of color and that the apse was decorated with cross and oval-shaped antefixes. The mosaic shows signs of heavy burning; the destruction of the unfinished building is attributed to the Persian conquest of AD 614. The area was used as a pottery dump during which late 6th and early 7th century lamps were deposited as well as stone molds and pottery sherds.
The 1978 field smmary report notes that Area 22, beneath the Islamic and Crusader burials, had the first figural mosaic found in Caesarea. Dating from the 6th century it shows a female face - a season of the year. It was made from 9 colors including blue and green glass. A mosaic report from 1978 speculates that the face could also be a "River Goddess, who glances to the right with wide, sharply defined eyes. Near her, on the eft side of the panel, rises a stalk of millet in green, blue, yellow and brown glass which matches the color and material of her turban-like headdress. A narrow arc in pale blue marble tesserae passes behind the millet and her head. [Maybe] the arc is meant to represent stylized flowing water which cascaded into a receptacle either carried in her left hand or placed beside her."
1974 season - Field C-17
17003 - Three stones covering a Muslim burial measuring 56 x 53 cm (child?). Top elevation 10.18 meters above sea level and bottom 10.05. Interpreted as a Muslim burial with note that many other Muslim burials were also found nearby.
17007 - Six stones covering a Muslim burial (adult?). Top elevation 9.94 meters above sea level. Photograph 138-4. The skeleton was excavated as locus 17016, but not registered.
17008 - Three stones that had formed the wall to a grave; 50 cm. north of burial 17007
17009 - Burial between 17008 and 17010. Dimensions 2 x 1 meters indicates adult.
17010 - Three stones that had formed the wall to a grave; 125 x 25 cm. suggests a juvenile burial.
17011 - One capstone and two wall stones of a Muslim burial measuring 1 x 1 meter; probably a child.
17012 - Capstone and wall stones protruding from the east balk. Inferred as Muslim.
17013 - Capstone and wall stones protruding from teh east balk close to the south balk
Arcini, Caroline Ahlstrom
2018 The Viking Age: A Time of Many faces. Oxbox Books, Oxford.
Bull, Robert J., Edgar Krentz, and Olin J. Storvick
1986 "The Joint Expedition to Caesarea Maritima: Ninth Season, 1980" BASOR Supplement 24:31-55.
Fuller, Michael J.
2016 Crusader Burials and Material Culture from Area C at Caesarea Maritima. paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Reseaerch meeting held in San Antonio, Texas.
2018 Bioarchaeology observations of selected skeletal remains from Caesarea Maritima. Manuscript.
Hardy, Jessica, and Gabriel Wrobel
2006 The morphological characteristics of the skeletal remains from site of Caesarea, Israel. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. San Juan, PR. April 2006.
Hardy, Jessica, Ann Palkovich, and Gabriel Wrobel
2006 Analysis of Burial Collections from Caesarea, Israel. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the SAA held on 28 April 2006 in the Puerto Rico Convention Center.
Holum, Kenneth G., Robert L. Hohlfelder, Robert J. Bull, and Avner Raban
1988 King Herod's Dream: Caesarea on the Sea. W. W. Norton and Company, New York.
2013 Unpublished notes concerning specific skeletal remains from Caesarea Maritima. Temple University Department of Art History.
Mitchell, Piers D.
2006 Trauma in the Crusader Period City of Caesarea: A Major Port in the Eastern Mediterranean. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 16:493-505.
Mitchell, Piers D. and Andrew R. Millard
2013 Approaches to the Study of Migration during the Crusades. Crusades 12:1 - 12.
Muendel, Melissa Grace
1981 The Population of Caesarea Maritima based on its Skeletal Remains. Thesis submitted at Drew University, Madison (NJ).
2007 Knights Templar Encyclopedia. New Page Books, Pompton Plains (NJ).
Shelton, Kailey Anabel
2013 Dental Health and Abrasion among Christian Crusaders at Caesarea Maritima, Israel. Senior research powerpoint presented at Michigan State University on 19 November 2013.
Smith, Patricia and Tanya Zegersen
1999 Morbidity and Mortality of Post-Byzantine Populations from Caesarea. Caesarea Papers 2:433 - 440.
Skeletal remains at Michigan State University:
C80. C26.44, (C26005) burial 16 - JuvenileC80. C26.xx, (C26006) burial 43
C80. C26, (C26008) burial 18 - Juvenile , dental abrasion on maxillary and mandible anterior, premolars, and molars; 9 Linear Enamel Hypoplasia
C80. C26, (C26011) burial 19 - dental abrasion on maxillary and mandible anterior, premolars, and molars; 9 Linear Enamel Hypoplasia.
C80. C26.105, (C26012) burial 53 - Juvenile. A silver cross with an eye to allow it be suspended was found associated with this burial.
C80. C26.72, (C26013) burial 29 - Juvenile; 2 Linear Enamel hypoplasia.
C80. C26.69, (C26026) burial 35 - 4 caries, dental abasion on maxillary and mandible anterior, premolars, molars; 5 Linear Enamel Hypoplasia
C80. C26.xx, (C26021) burial 27 [listed as 2.25.00] - dental abrasion on maxillary and mandible anterior;
C80. C26.xx, (C26023) burial 49
C80. C26.71 (C26025) burial 31 - Juvenile;
C80. C26.78, (C26022) burial 39 - dental abrasion on both maxillary and mandible anterior, premolars, molars;
C80. C26.79, (C26027) burial 38 - Juvenile
C80. C26.93, (C26032) burial 48
C80. C26.99, (C26033) burial 52 - caries, abrasion on maxillary premolars, and molars
C80. C26.xx, (C26032) burial 56 - abrasion on maxillary and mandible anterior, premolars and molars; 2 Linear Enamel Hypoplasia
C80. C26.117, (C26043) burial 61 - maxillary dental abrasion anterior and molars; 1 Linear Enamel hypoplasia
C80. C26.118, (C26044) burial 64
C80. C26.131 (C26019) burial 71 [listed as C22] - burial 70 listed as dental abrasion on maxillary anterior and molars; 1 Linear enamel hypoplasia
C80. C26.47, (C26105) burial 17 - dental abrasion on maxillary and mandible anterior, premolars and molars; 10 Linear Enamel Hypoplasia
C80. C28.57, (C28028) burial 28
C80. G9.120, (G9003) burial 40 - dental abrasion on mandibular molar.
C80. G120, (G9003) burial 41
C80. G22.131 (G26019) burial 71
BC4 - 13 to 18 year old; the burial with the eyes covered by a cranium! - dental abrasion on maxillary and manidble anterior, premolars, molars, 11 Linear Enamel Hypoplasia
BC8 - fetus
BC25 - female with 3 caries, dental abrasion on maxillary and mandible premolars, and molars; 14 Linear Enamel Hypoplasia.
27 individuals including 15 adults, 2 children and 3 juveniles (mixed adult and deciduous denition).
Shelton studied evidence of Lineaer Enamel Hypoplasia (LEH), Caries and Dental Abrasion.
53.3% of population had Linear Enamel Hypoplasia. Shelton inteprets this as evidence of high childhood stress similar to rural Greece in Middle Ages according to Pitsios (2012). Shelton calls it malnutrition. BUT!!!! That is just presence. Only 6 out of 15 had "significant" (5 to 14) hypoplasia "events" while the rest had only 1 or 2 events. That means 40% show childhood malnutrition.
Only 3 out of 15 individuals had caries and 1 of those was just a single caries. That fraction is low compared to the Middle Eastern continental sample cited by Caselitz (1998).
Shelton concluded that the similar patterns of tooth wear implied similar diets consisting of food from grinding and sand contamination.
Webpage updated 10 February 2019