Gronefeld Site , 23SC51

The Gronefeld Site (23SC51) is situated along the bluffs of the Missouri River in St. Charles County. Research at the site during 1943 resulted in the discovery of a grooved axe, two large thick unnotched blades and the basal section of another large blade. Grayson Parks and Gregory Perino excavated at the site during 1944 in an area that measured 18 feet in diameter. They discovered 49 flint tools, 3 grooved axes, and a small square polled flair bitted celt or spud-like object. Note: If you have any of the original artifacts in your private collection, then please contact Professor Michael Fuller so the artifacts can be rephotographed and documented.



Large flaring bit celt (sometimes called a "spud") found at the Gronefeld Site and illustrated by Perino (1954).



Large grooved axe found at the Gronefeld Site and illustrated by Perino (1954).



Bannerstone found at the Gronefeld Site and illustrated by Perino (1954).



A bannerstone published by Dr. Paul Titterington (1950). He described the banner stone as 4.4 inches wide and 3.3 inches at the widest part of the wing. These are similar but different specimens.



Two large Etley points found at the Gronefeld Site and illustrated by Perino (1954).



Godar points found at the Gronefeld Site and illustrated by Perino (1954).



Large expanding-stemmed point found at the Gronefeld Site.



Straight-stemmed point with resharpening at the tip (somewhat like an Afton point) found at the Gronefeld Site.



Godar point found at the Gronefeld Site.



Godar point found at the Gronefeld Site.



Straight-stemmed point found at the Gronefeld Site.



Unnotched point (resembling a Plainview) found at the Gronefeld Site.



Unifacial scraper found at the Gronefeld Site.


Hematite plummet found at the Gronefeld Site.





Two view of a grooved axe found at the Gronefeld Site.



Discoidal found at the Gronefeld Site.



Stemmed point found at the Gronefeld Site.



Side-Notched point found at the Gronefeld Site.



Side-notched point from the Gronefeld Site, ex. coll. Grayson Parks.



Projectile point from the Gronefeld Site.



Unnotched projectile point from the Gronefeld Site.



Resharpend point turned into a awl from the Gronefeld Site.



Resharpened point turned into an awl from the Gronefeld Site.



One Cordmarked rimsherd and three bodysherds, typical of the Late Woodland Period, from the Gronefeld Site.



Grog tempered bodysherd typical of the Middle Woodland Period from the Gronefeld Site..



Incised bodysherd with grit and grog temper, typical of the Middle Woodland Period, from the Gronefeld Site.



Midsection of a finely flaked bifacial knife from the Gronefeld Site.



Adze manufactured from a banded chert found at the Gronefeld Site.


Dr. Titterington noted that the axes were manufactured from diorite and "of average size." One axe retained traces of red ochre paint on its surface and weighed 2.25 pounds. One of the chert blades also showed evidence of being stained with red ochre.

Note: If you have some of the original artifacts from this site (such as the Bannerstone), then please contact Professor Michael Fuller at St. Louis Community College so it can be rephotographed and documented.

Perino, Gregory
1954 The Titterington Focus - Red Ochre. Central States Archaeological Journal 1(1): 15 - 17.

Titterington, Paul F.
1950 Non-pottery sites in the St. Louis Area. Journal of the Illinois State Archaeological Society 1: 19 - 31.


Webpage constructed 27 September 2007