Hazelwood Site (23SL1056)
Several students trained at
St. Louis Community College worked on the Hazelwood Site rescue excavation.
An archaeologist shovel skims the soil looking
for the telltale signs of discoloration and artifacts that indicate the presence
of a Middle Woodland Period pit feature.
Several pit features being actively excavated on
one day by a team of approximately a dozen archaeologists. The site may consists of
approximately 500 pits features dating the Middle Woodland Period.
The traditional method of excavating a trash filled pit feature
is to section the pit along its widest axis.
After it was sectioned, then the pit was carefully profiled using metric
All soil fill from a pit feature was water screened.
One bucket of dirt can take several minutes to water screen.
Some pit features, like this one, may contain significant amounts of
calcined (burnt) limestone.
The rescue excavation documented
457 cultural features in 12 defined clusters.
Closeup showing the non-random distribution pattern of pits along
the west margin of the excavated area.
Results of 5 radiocarbon dates:
Beta 188961 = Hackberry, Ash, and Oak charcoal
cal C-14 AD 70 to 230
Beta 188962 = Ash, American Elm, White Oak charcoal
cal C-14 AD 240 to 400
Beta 188963 = Hickory, Poplar and Ash charcoal
cal C-14 BC 190 to 40
Beta 188964 = Oak charcoal and nutshell
cal C-14 BC 350 to 310 and 210 to 50
Beta 188965 = Hackberry, Maple, Hickory, Black walnut shell, and Hazel nutshell
cal C-14 AD 130 to 340
Analysis of macrobotanical remains by Kathryn E. Parker
Cluster 3, dominant wood taxon - ash, dominant nut taxon = hickory, dominant seed taxon = maygrass
Cluster 5, dominant wood taxon - ash, dominant nut taxon = hazelnut, dominant seed taxon =
chenopod and little barley
Cluster 6, dominant wood taxon - ash, dominant nut taxon = hickory, dominant seed taxon =
Cluster 9, dominant wood taxon - ash, dominant nut taxon = hazelnut, dominant seed taxon = chenopod
Cluster 11, dominant wood taxon - ash, dominant nut taxon = acorn, dominant seed taxon = chenopod
Summary of Nutshells from flotation
Black walnut 2.5%
Summary of Identified seeds from flotation
Amaranthus spp. (pigweed) 0.29%
Andropogon spp. (bluestem/broomsedge) 0.87%
Chenpodoium berlandieri (chenopod) 33.58%
Cyperaceae (sedge family) 0.15%
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon) 0.73%
Euphorbia maculata 0.29%
Galium sp. (bedstraw) 3.05%
Heliainthus annuus (sunflower) 0.29%
Hordem pusillum (little barley) 27.18%
Ilex decidua 0.15%
Phalaris caroliniana (maygrass) 17.73%
Poaceae (grass family) 4.07%
Polygonum spp. (smartweed) 0.29%
Polygonum erectum (erect knotweed) 6.25%
Prunus (cherry) 0.15%
Rhus (sumac) 0.58%
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry) 1.16%
Sicyos angulatus (prickly cucumber) 0.29%
Solanum ptycanthum (black nightshade) 0.29%
Vitis spp. (grape) 1.74%
also, 6 small fragments of Cucurbita pepo (squash/pumpkin)
Faunal Analysis by Terrance J. Martin
Mammals: White-tailed deer (dominant identified species), eastern cotton-tail, fox squirrel,
and tree squirrel
Birds: Pied-billed greve, Duck, wild turkey
Repticles: Semi-aquatic pond turtle (dominant identified species), painted turtle,
and eastern box turtle.
Fish: Bullhead catfish, channel catfish, and freshwater drum.
Fragment of large mammal bone found during screening of the pit feature fill.
Cut marks can be seen along the left edge of the bone.
Webpage constructed February 2003
Webpage modified October 2005