excerpt from: Early Historic Material from the King Hill Site (23BN1)
Unpublished paper prepared by Scott F. Anfinson during February 1975 for the Anthropology Department at the University of Nebraska [photocopy on file in the St. Joseph Museum and used with their permission]

[page 5] The main reason for separating the Early and Late historic materials is to see what kinds of and to what extent non-indigenous materials were being utilized by the original inhabitants of King Hill. This information has some important implications as to the extent of culture change brought about by the presence of foreign goods, and as to when the site was first occupied.

It was necessaary, then, to define a number of tyhpes for the Early Hisoric material at King Hill. These types were based on the artifacts from the relatively undisturbed Midden Zone, on types from contemporaneous sites in central North America, and on early records of trade.

Using these three criteria, seven Early Historic artifact types were set up:
1. Brass/Copper cones
2. Brass/Copper tubes
3. Brass/Copper Blanks
4. Brass/Copper coils
5. Brass/Copper Beads
6. Glass beads
7. Iron Fragments

Types 1 through 5 appear to be only characteristic of the aboriginal occupation of King Hill while types 6 and 7 are also characteristic of the later occupation. Other Late items recovered include marbles, eyelets, a variety of glass, china, springs, nails, wire, tar, rubber, toys and other items too numerous to mention. The most spectacular item from this relatively recent component was a cast iron bank in the shape of a clown or a jester. Cleaning of the heavily rusted bank with an air-abrasive unit not only revealed fine details and the head of the screw in back in back that it together, but also revealed that it had originally been painted red and gold.

Listed below are the sites used for comparative purposes. These sites represent only a regional survey and, admittedly, there are a number of other sites that could have been included. The following sites should, however, be adequate for th purposes of this paper.


Doniphan Site (D)
Sources: W. Wedel (1959)
Cultural Affiliations: Kansa
Date: Early 18th century

Fanning Site (F)
Sources: W. Wedel(1959), Henning (1970), Schock and Bass (1966)
Cultural Affiliation: Kansa
Date: 1675 to 1700 (?)

Utz (U)
Sources: Berry and Chapman (1942), Henning (1970), Bray (1970), Davis (1972) Cultural Affiliation: Oneota
Date: 1685 to 1723

Late Missouri (LM) - also referred to as Gumbo Point and Missouri Village
Sources: Chapman (1959), Henning (19970), Davis (1972)
Cultural Affiliation: Missouri
Date: 1727 to 1777


Gillette (G)
Sources: Brown (1964) Davis (1972)
Cultural Affiliation: Arikara
Date: 1700 to 1800

Sulky (S)
Sources: Evans (1966), Stephanson (1970), Davis (1972)
Cultural Affiliation: Arikara


Bell (B)
Sources: Quimby (1966), Wittry (1963)
Cultural Affiliation: Fox
Date: 1680 to 1730

Orr Focus (OF) - various sites; ORegan important
Sources: W. Wedel (1959), M. Wedel (1959), Henning (1970), Davis (1972)
Cultural Affiliation: Oneota
Date: 1625 to 1700


Frank Bay (FB)
Sources: Ridley (1952), Quimby (1966)
Cultural Affiliation: Huron-Lalonde
Date: 1650 to 1670

Cahiaque (C)
Sources: Ridley (1952), Quimby (1966)
Cultural Affiliation: Huron
Date: pre - 1650

Ossossane (O)
Sources: Ridley (1952), Quimby (1966)
Cultural Affiliation: Huron
Date: pre - 1650

[Page 7] Three records of early trade were also consulted:

1) The inventory of a trader in the Illinois scountry in 1688 (Bauxar 1959)
2) Father Hennipin's lists of early trade goods from 1698 (Quimby 1966). Although these lists were probably plagarized and not a first-hand observation in Hennipin's part, Quimby (1966:7) feels that they are accurate.
3) Father Jean Berger's lists of trade goods presented to the Kaskaskia Indian to keep them from moving away from Cahokia in 1701 (Caruso 1966).

Using the comparative sites, early records, and Middle Zone materials, the following types of Early Historic artifacts were defined. Determinations of brass and copper were made on visual basis after a portion of the artifact had been scratched with a knife. Although the accuracy of this test is questionable especially when one considers the variability in the chemical make-up of early trade items, it indicated that the majority of the metal Early artifacts were made of brass not copper. this would tend to rule out the possibility that a significant number of the artifacts came from indigenous sources.

1) Cones - Often referred to as fringe clips or tinkler cones. They were probably attached to clothing for decorative of musical purposes. Cones are made by rolling up trapezoidal pieces of brass or copper that were usually cut out of sheet metal kettles (Quimby 1966:72). The King Hill exsamples average about 25 mm in length with a range of 16.1 to 27.1 mm. Average base diameter is about 10 mm. Of the 12 cones found at King Hill, 4 are made of copper and 8 of brass. Of the four found in the Middle Zone, 3 were brass. Similar examples were founda at Doniphan, Fanning, Bell, Frank Bray, Utz, and the Late Missouri sites. Trade kettles of brass and copper, probable raw material, are mentioned by the Illlinois trade of 1686, Father Hennipin, and Father Berger.

[Cones have been reported from King Hill Midden deposits, King Hill Disturbed deposits, Doniphan, Fanning, Utz, Late Missouri, Bell, and Frank Bay sites]

[Page 8] 2) Tubes - this type could be further divided into three sub-types on the basis of diameter, but in general these are tubes of brass or copper made by rolling up squares or rectangles of metal. Fifty-four examaples of this type were recovered from King Hill with 15 from the Midden Zone. Only a few were made of copper. Tubes were found at Doniphan, Fanning, Orr Focus and Utz.

Sub-type 1 would have an average diameter of 12 mm and an average length of about 30 mm. The tubes of this sub-type are not always closed and resemble small rings.

Sub-type 2 average about 7 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length. This sub-type is the most common.

Sub-type 3 consists of small tubes that almost resemble thick wire and are usually quite a bit longer than the first two sub-types. Average length is 25 mm witih diameters averaging only 2 to 3 mm. The tubes in general were probalby used as large beads or clothing decorations.

[Tubes have been reported at King Hill midden deposits, King Hill Disturbed deposits, Doniphan, Fanning, Utz, and Orr Focus]

3) Blanks - These trapezoidal, rectaangular, square, or irregular pieces of brass and copper could have been used to make the cones and tubes. Fifty-seven examples were found at King Hill in a variety of sizes. Twenty were in the Midden Zone.

[Blanks have been reported at the King Hill midden deposits, King Hill Disturbed deposits, Doniphan, Fanning, Late Missouri, and Bell sites.]

4) Coils - These are circlets of small tubing or wire of brass or copper. Theyh average 8 mm in diameter. Only 1 of the 5 examples from King Hill was from the Middle Zone. It is interesting that only the Midden Zone example was made of copper while the other 4 were made of brass. The coils probably served a decorataive purpose. Mildred Wedel (1959) [page 9] notes similar coils at the Orr Focus sites in northern Iowa and calls them ear ornaments. Other examples were found at Fanning and Utz.

[Coils have been reported at the King Hill midden deposits, King Hill Disturbed deposits, Fanning, Utz, and Orr Focus sites.]

5) Brass and Copper Beads - This type is made by rolling up narrow strips of brass or copper and are significantly smaller than the tube type examples. The King Hill specimens average about 5 mm in width and 3 mm in diameter. Sixty-eight wer found at King Hill with 25 in the Midden Zone. They are also noted at Bell, Ossossane, and Utz.

[Brass and Copper Beads have been reported King Hill midden deposits, King Hill Disturbed deposits, Utz, Bell, and Orr Focus sites.]

6) Glass Beads - A total of 132 glass beads were found at King Hill. None of them appeared to be wire-wound. Three sub-types were established:

Sub-type 1 - small, rounded tube-beads similar to the IIa variety in Kidd and Kidd (1970). They are soometimes referred to as "seed" or "pony" beads. Various colors are represented including blue, white, black and green. One hundred and seventeen beads were found of which 69 were recovered from the Middle Zone.

[Seed beads been been reported from King Hill Midden deposits, King Hill Disturbed deposits, and the Gillette Site.]

Sub-type 2 - are similar to the Kidd and Kidd (1970) variety IIa also, but are larger than the "seed" beads. Two light greenish blue and one dark blue beads were in the Midden Zone of the 9 found at King Hill.

[Large tube beads have been reported from King Hill Midden deposits, King Hill Disturbed deposits, Doniphan, Utz, Late Missouri, and Gillette Site.]

Sub-type 3 - contgains miscellaneous and unidentified varieties. Five were found in the Midden Zone. The white examples may be made of shell.

[Wire wound beads were not found at the King Hill site, but were discovered at Fanning, Utz, and Late Missouri sites.]

Many of the beads, especially the "seed" beads appear to be quite weathered. Glass beads in general were found at Fanning, Doniphan, Utz, Late Missouri, Orr Focus, Bell, Ossossane, Cahique, Frank Bay,

[page 10] and Gillette. They are in the lists of the Illinois Trader, Father Hennipin, and Father Berger. It is of note that King Hill had no wire-wound beads and more "seed" beads than contemporaneous area sites, although the more intensive recovery techniques employed at King Hill probably account for the relative abundance of small beads.

7) Iron Fragments - only a few small, heavily corroded pieces of iron were found in the Middle Zone at King Hill and none of these resembled gun parts or the heavier trade objects such as hoes, axes, and hatchets. Iron fragments were found at all of the other sites surveyed. Iron objects are listed by the Illinois Trade and Father Hennipin. Father Berger lists only "knives", but they are most likely of iron.

[Knives were recovered from King Hill Disturbed deposits, Fanning, Late Missouri, Gillette, Orr Focus, Cahique, and Frank Bay sites. Hoes were not found at the King Hill Site, but were reported from the Bell Site. Axes were not recovered from the King Hill site, but were reported from the Fanning and Cahique sites.]

There were three other objects from King Hill that were not found in the Midden Zone, but may be Early Historic:
- an iron knife blade in three sections and heavily rusted
- a piece of brass kettle with the hole for a handle
- a brass bell

A - Illinois Trader list of 1688 (Bauxer 1959)

25 ells linen, 15 ells scarlet cloth, 19.5 ells serge for capes, 18.5 ells red serge for capes, 8 livres sewing threat, 24 pains stockings, 26 dozen butcher knives, 6 dozen canoe knives, 2 dozen clasp knnives, 36 dozen hatchets, 2 large axes, 8 muskets, 100 livres gun power, 200 livres lead, 71 livres lead balls, 8 gun pliers, 200 musket flints, 1 livre gun worms, 100 iron arrowheads, 30 augers, 24 steels for striking fire, 65 livres copper kettles, 5 livres glass beads, 200 quills, 4 dozen paints, 2.25 libres azure blue, 12 mirros, 8.5 libres net thread, 64 libres tobacco, 25 livres brandy, 2 minots peas.

B - Father Hennipin's Trade list of 1698 (Quimby 1966)

Trade goods of iron: axes, hatchets, inives, shoemwaker awls, needles, fishhooks, fire forks, pot hooks, hoes. Guns: flinklock muskets, bullets, gunpowder, empty wine and brandy bottles for gunpowder, gunflints. Tobacco. Kettles, Looking glasses. Little toys. Brass rings. Jews-harps. Combs. Textiles. Glass beads (white, black and blue).

C - Father Berger's Trade list of 1701 (Caruso 1966)

A kettle, 4 lbs. powder, 1 lb. glass beads, 4 boxes vermillion, and a dozen knives.



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