"Corn was the most abudant plant food recovered at King HIll. Carbonized corn cobs, corn grains, or recognizeable fragments were present in all but a few levels from top to bottom. The corn from this site is predominently a race called Northern or Eastern Flint or more recently Eastern Eight-row. Small cobs with 12, 13 and, occasionally, 16 rows of grains were found. Sixteen carbonized beans or halves of beans were recovered in 1966-1967. In 1972 excavations recovered more than 50 whole, half, or recognizable fragments of common beans. Ten seeds of squash (Cucurbita pepo) were recovered in 1966-67. Other seeds include watermelon, gourd, peach, nuts (hazelnuts, black walnuts, and hickory), pawpaw, plum, hackberry, grape, blackberry, raspberry, and sunflower. " (Blake and Cutler, "Plant Remains from the King HIll Site (23BN1) and comparisons with those from the Utz Site (23SA2)" in The Missouri Archaeologist, Vol 43, 1982).







Church King excavates a bison scapula at the King Hill Site. Bison scapula were used as hoes at many sites in the Plains.







Carbonized corn cobs freshly removed from the soil matrix at the King Hill.







Corn cobs and nut shells from the King Hill Site.







Handheld grinding stone probably used to process corn into meal.







Cranium of a dog (or possibly coyote) from the King Hill site.







Awl made out of bone from the King Hill Site.







Rib bone (?) made either into a shuttle or in the process of being split for bone awls and needles.







Antler manufactured into tool.







Pottery disk with a drilled center hole. One possible interpretation is that it served as a spindle whorl used in the creation of fiber.







Mussel shell modified into a tool.







Map of the territory of the Kansa and neighboring tribes. The location of the King Hill site is the red dot between the letters O and M.




Click Here to see digital images of the artifacts from the King HIll excavation