The archaeological site of Spiro is famous for a range of aritfacts including effigy pipes, engraved shell artifacts, embossed copper sheets, bead necklaces, and ear spools that were discovered in the "Great Mortuary" context. Brown (1996:153-167) places the date for the Great Mortuary deposit at around AD 1400.

...Decorated shell........... ........Ear spools and metal .... .......Hamilton's tracings ....
Digitally adapted image of the Mortuary Chamber from Hamilton (1952:Plate 1).

Location of objects found in the Mortuary Chamber adapted from Hamilton (1952:Plate 5).

Profile of the Craig Mound (with Mortuary Chamber) and three smaller mounds at Spiro (Hamilton 1952:Plate 3A).

Plan and dimensions (in feet) of Craig Mound (with the Mortuary Chamber) adapted from Hamilton (1952:Plate 3B).


Brown, James A.
1971 Spiro Studies: Pottery Vessels. Stovall Museum of Science and History at the University of Oklahoma.
1976 Spiro Sudies: The Artifacts. Stovall Museum of Science and History at the University of Oklahoma.
1996 The Spiro Ceremonial Center. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology - University of Michigan 29.

Brown, James A. and Henry W. Hamilton
1965 The cultural and artistic world of Spiro and Mississippian culture: Spiro and Mississippian Antiquities from the McDannald Collection. Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.

Hamilton, Henry W.
1952 The Spiro Mound. Missouri Archaeologist 14.

La Vere, David
2007 Looting Spiro Mounds: An American King Tut's Tomb. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman

Merriam, Larry and Christopher Merriam
2004 The Spiro Mound: A Photo Essay. Merriam Station Books. Oklahoma City.

Phillips, Philip and James A. Brown
1978 Pre-Colmbian Shell Engravings from the Craig Mound at Spiro, Oklahoma. Peabody Museum of Harvard University, Cambridge.

Townsend, Richard F. and Robert V. Sharp (Editors)
2004 Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago.

Website created 7 February 2009

Webpage updated 13 June 2020